Civil war gives way to reconstruction: 1865-1876. A two part process: reconstructing the nation, reconstructing the body politic. Johnson seizes control over reconstruction in 1865. Prioritizes reunion: pardons white southerners with less than ,000 in pre-war property who were not confederate of cers/of cials. Grants individuals pardon to most of those exempted. The failures of presidential reconstruction: johnson"s plans lead to other troubling outcomes: Mass violence against freedman in new orleans. Changing currents: congress returns at the end of 1865, attempt to take control of the reconstruction, prioritize remaking the nations citizenry, johnson vetoes early efforts to protect african american rights. Radical reconstruction (1867-1876: johnson faces impeachment efforts and soon backs down, hands control over reconstruction to republican congress, adopt the reconstruction act in 1867: Removes the existing state government: in 1868, johnson replaced by union war hero ulysses s. grant. 14ht amendment (1868: confers citizenship on all people born in the us and guarantees equal protection under the law.