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HST 210 Lecture Notes - Plants And Animals, Enheduanna, Sumer

2 pages74 viewsSummer 2013

Course Code
HST 210

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-"The land btwn the rivers" (in Greek)
-Btwn Tigris & Euphrates
-Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Isreal, Lebanon, part of Iran
-Why river valleys?
-Agriculture -- fertile
-Transportation, trading
-Ag. Rev. readches Mesopot. ~5500BCE
-Domestication of plants & animals
-Centralized authority, division of labor, social classes
-Collective effort, cooperation
-Impact on gender roles
-Male: public, political, admin, judicial, military
-Female: household, procreation, child-rearing
-Hot summers
-Rainfall >10 in per year
-Flooding April - June, unpredictable
-Silting and salinization
-Highly-organized society -- extensive irrigation sys.
-Pay-off = agri. surpluses
-First civ.: Sumerian (4300-2334BCE)
-State & urban rev. (~3500BCE)
-Kingship (Ensi)
-Priests & scribes -- cuneiform
-Inventories, contracts, wills, property deeds, etc.
-Used to write various languages (Sumerian, Akkadian, Elamite)
-Trade & warfare, fortification, military recruitment
-Temples and palaces (ziggurat)
-Uruk, one of earliest cities, pop. ~50,000
-Political relationships > kinship ties
-Ur = earliest city
-20 major city-states
-King of Kish
-Sargon I creates 1st empire
-King of Kish, Uruk, & Ur
-Akkadian Empire
-Pretty much whole fertile crescent
-Enheduanna = daughter of Sargon, high priestess of An and Nanna, first
female author
-An = god of heaven, Uruk
-Nanna = moon god, Ur
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