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Lecture 9

IST 352 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Hypertext, Human Computer, TrackballPremium

6 pages106 viewsFall 2016

Information Studies
Course Code
IST 352

of 6
IST 352 | November 1, 2016
Designing Interfaces and Dialogues
User-focused activity
Prototyping methodology of iteratively:
Collecting information
Constructing a prototype
Assessing usability
Making refinements
Must answer the who, what, where, and how questions
Creation of a design specification
A typical interface/dialogue design specification is similar to form design, but includes multiple
forms and dialogue sequence specifications.
The specification includes:
Narrative overview
Sample design
Testing and usability assessment
Dialogue sequence
Dialogue sequencethe ways a user can move from one display to another
Interaction Methods and Devices
Interface: a method by which users interact with an information system
All human-computer interfaces must:
have an interaction style, and
use some hardware device(s) for supporting this interaction.
Methods of Interaction
Command line
Includes keyboard shortcuts and function keys
Natural language
Command Line:
Command language interaction: a human-computer interaction method whereby users
enter explicit statements into a system to invoke operations
Example from MS DOS:
Command copies a file from C: drive to A: drive
Menu interaction: a human-computer interaction method in which a list of system options is
provided and a specific command is invoked by user selection of a menu option
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Pop-up menu: a menu-positioning method that places a menu near the current cursor
Drop-down menu is a menu-positioning method that places the access point of the menu
near the top line of the display.
When accessed, menus open by dropping down onto the display.
Visual editing tools help designers construct menus.
Guidelines for Menu Design
Wording meaningful titles, clear command verbs, mixed upper/lower case
Organization consistent organizing principle
Length all choices fit within screen length
Selection consistent, clear and easy selection methods
Highlighting only for selected options or unavailable options
Form Interaction
Form interaction: a highly intuitive human-computer interaction method whereby data
fields are formatted in a manner similar to paper-based forms
Allows users to fill in the blanks when working with a system.
Object Based Interaction
Object-based interaction: a human-computer interaction method in which symbols are
used to represent commands or functions
Icons: graphical pictures that represent specific functions within a system
Use little screen space and are easily understood by users
Natural Language Interaction
Natural language interaction: a human-computer interaction method whereby inputs to
and outputs from a computer-based application are in a conventional spoken language
such as English
Based on research in artificial intelligence
Current implementations are tedious and difficult to work with, not as viable as other
interaction methods.
Hardware Options
Touch Screen
Light Pen
Graphics Tablet
Usability Problems with Hardware Devices
Visual Blocking
Extent to which device blocks display when using
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User Fatigue
Potential for fatigue over long use
Movement Scaling
Extent to which device movement translates to equivalent screen movement
Lack of durability or need for maintenance (e.g., cleaning) over extended use
Adequate Feedback
Extent to which device provides adequate feedback for each operation
Cursor movement speed
Pointing Accuracy
Ability to precisely direct cursor
Designing Interfaces
Forms have several general areas in common:
Header information
Sequence and time-related information
Instruction or formatting information
Body or data details
Totals or data summary
Authorization or signatures
Use standard formats similar to paper-based forms and reports.
Use left-to-right, top-to-bottom navigation.
Flexibility and consistency:
Free movement between fields
No permanent data storage until the user requests
Each key and command assigned to one function
Controlling Data Input
Objective: Reduce data entry errors
Common sources of data entry errors in a field:
Appending: adding additional characters
Truncating: losing characters
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