Sarah H. Short, Ph.D.,Ed.D., RD, Prof of Nutrition
• If you miss an exam, you MUST have a documented excuse from your college. If
not, you will not be able to take the exam.
• You MUST make up a missed exam within 3 days of returning to classes
• If you have a planned absence, you must contact TAs before you leave to
schedule a makeup
• If you miss an exam and do not follow the proper procedure you will receive a
ZERO and you cannot drop that grade
• If you cheat on an exam, you will get a zero and a report will be sent to your
• We will not let anyone enter the exam after 11:15 am
Dietary Standards and Labeling
“Guidelines involve balance, variety, and moderation”
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
1. p\Published by the National Academy of Sciences, (first published in
1943)the 10th ed was finally published at the end of 1989.
2. Because of the differences in nutritional needs of individuals, it is difficult
to devise a general food plan that will be correct for everyone. Therefore the
scientific recommendations are given not in foods but in nutrients (grams of
protein, mg of vitamins, etc.)
3. Recommendations were designed to maintain good nutrition in
HEALTHY persons in the UNITED STATES + have a margin of safety.
4. The adults for whom allowances are given are described as reference
individuals of different age and gender. The reference people live in a moderate
climate and are moderately active.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) (1997 present)
1. Published by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy
2. Why were the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) replaced with the Dietary
Reference Intakes (DRI)?
3. DRIs include 4 parts:
• Estimated Average requirement (EAR) intakes that meet the estimated
nutrient needs of 50% of people in a gender &age group 2
• Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) meets the nutrient needs of almost
all healthy individuals in a specific age and gender group. It is based on an
average requirement plus an increase (margin of safety).
• Adequate Intake (AI) when there is insufficient evidence for an RDA, Adequate
Intakes have been set.
• Tolerable Upper Level (UL) maximum intake by an individual that is unlikely
to pose toxic risks. If you go above that level from food, fortified food and/or
nutrient supplements; you will be at risk of adverse effects.
What is the difference between adequate intake (AI) and a recommended
dietary allowance? .
Is it better to achieve the Dietary Reference Intakes through food,
supplements or a combination?
NOTE: The RDA only had figures up to age 51+. Nothing was published about people
beyond 51. The dietary recommendations since 1997 have recommendations for age 51
70 and age >70. IN USA, life expectancy is now 75 years for men and 80 for women.
FOOD GUIDE MyPlate.gov 2011 Food guide published in 2011
MyPyramid is gone and now we have a plate
● Enjoy your food, but eat less.
● Avoid oversized portions.
Foods to Increase
● Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.
● Make at least half your grains whole grains.
● Switch to fatfree or lowfat (1%) milk.
Foods to Reduce
●Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals ― and choose the foods
with lower numbers.
● Drink water instead of sugary drinks
Problems: Need a computer to find portion size and some older (or in poverty ) folks do
not have computers.
US Senate Select committee on Nutrition and Human Needs
1. Reduce refined and processed sugars to 10% of total energy