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PSC 124 Chapters 7-13.docx

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Political Science
PSC 124
Linda Northrup

PSC 124 Chapter 7 International Organization Law and Human RightsRoles of International Organizations States generally refrain from taking maximum shortterm advantage of each other Rather states work with other states for mutual gain and take advantage of each other only at the margin 1 States work together by following rules they develop to govern their interactions 2 Over time the rules become more firmly established and institutions grow up around them3 States then develop the habit of working through institutions those institutions and within the rules because of selfinterest International Norms The expectations held by participants about normal relations among states 1 Some norms such as sovereignty and respect for treaties are widely held they shape expectations about state behavior and set standards that make deviations stand out2 Philosophers such as Kant argued that it was natural for autonomous individuals or states to cooperate for mutual benefit because they could see that pursuing their narrow individual interests would end up hurting alla Sovereign states could work together through structures and organizations that would respect each members autonomy and not create a world government over themi Morality can be a factor for misunderstanding and conflict rather than a force of stability ii Realists point to examples such as these to suggest that international norms do not hold much sway on important matters of IRiii Many of the accepted norms were shaped by the powerful states in the system and these same powerful states are often responsible for their interpretationiv Constructivists scholars point out that even if international norms are violated states go to tremendous lengths to justify behaviors that violate the norms IOs Intergovernmental organizations IGOs such as the UN and nongovernmental organizations NGOs such as the International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC 3 Liberals point out that contrary to realists or constructivists it is the codification of international norms in institutions that gives norms their power a Create incentives to reciprocate behavior encouraged by a norm while also constraining the behavior of powerful states through rules that govern behavior4 Liberals point to the large ad growing number of international institutions as evidence of their power and importance IGOs An organization such as the United Nations and its agencies whose members are state governmentsThe regional ones have had more success than the global ones and those with specific functional or technical purposes have worked better than those with broad purposes IGOs hold together because they promote the national interests of their member states not because of vague ideals 1 Regional IGOs a European Union encompasses some of the most important organizations b Association of South East Asian Nations ASEAN c Southern Cone Common Market MERCOSUR d African Unions 2 Global IGOs usually have functional purposes involving coordinating actions of some set of states around the world PSC 124NGOs A transnational group or entity such as the Catholic Church Greenpeace or the International Olympic Committee that interacts with states multinational corporations MNCs other NGOs and intergovernmental organizations tend to be more specialized in functionEconomic or businessrelated functionsGlobal political purposes Cultural purposesReligious purposes among the largestThe United Nations 1 United Nations a Played a role in international security affairs since the end of the Cold War2 Purposes of the UN a Closest thing to a world government that has ever existed b Members are sovereign states c Basic purpose of the UN is to provide a global institutional structure through which states can sometimes settle conflicts with less reliance on the use of force 3 Benefitsa International stability especially in security affairs that the UN tries to safeguard i Allows states to realize gains from trade and other forms of exchange b UN is a symbol of international order and even of global identity c Forum where states promote their views and bring their disputes d Mechanism for conflict resolution in international security affairs e Promotes and coordinates development assistance and other programs of economic and social development in the global Southf Coordinating system for information and planning by hundreds of internal and external agencies and programs and for the publication of international data4 History a Founded in 1945 in San Francisco by 51 states successor to the League of Nations which had failed to effectively counter aggression in the 1930sb Founded to increase international order and the rule of law to prevent another world war c Tensions has long existed between the UN and the United States as the worlds most powerful statei The UN in some ways constrains the United States by creating the one coalition that can rival US power ii UN amplifies US power when the United States leads the global UN coalition5 UN Programs a UNEP UN Environment Program i More prominent in the 1990s as the economic development of the global South and the growing economies of the industrialized world took a toll on the world environment ii Grapples with global environmental strategies iii Provides technical assistance to member states monitors environmental conditions globally develops standards and recommends alternative energy sources b UNICEF UN Childrens Fund i Provides technical and financial assistance to poor countries for programs benefiting children ii Financed by voluntary contributions c UNHCR Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees i Coordinates efforts to protect assist and eventually repatriate the many refugees who flee across international borders each year to escape war and political violencePSC 124 d UNDP UN Development Program i Funded by voluntary contributions ii Coordinates all UN efforts related to development in poor countries iii Worlds largest international agency for technical development assistance e UN Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD A structure established in 1964 to promote third world development through various trade proposalsi Because countries of the global South do not have much power in the international economy UNCTAD has little leverage to promote their interests in trade UN Charter The founding document of the United Nations it is based on the principles that states are equal have sovereignty over their own affairs enjoy independence and territorial integrity and must fulfill international obligations The Charter also lays out the structure and methods of the United Nationslays out the structure of the UN and the methods by which it operates UN General Assembly A body composed of representatives of all states that allocates UN funds passes nonbinding resolutions and coordinates third world development programs and various autonomous agencies through the Economic and Social Councilcoordinates a variety of development programs and other autonomous agencies through the Economic and Social Council ECOSOC Has 54 member states elected by the General Assembly for threeyear termsManages the overlapping work of a large number of programs and agenciesRegional Commissions look at how UN programs work together in a particular regionFunctional commissions deal with global topics such as population growth narcotics trafficking human rights and the status of womenExpert bodies work on technical subjects that cut across various UN programs in areas such as crime prevention and public finances UN Security Council A body of five great powers which can veto resolutions and ten rotating member states that makes decisions about international peace and security including the dispatch of UN peacekeeping forces dispatches peacekeeping forces to trouble spots UN Secretariat The UNs executive branch led by the secretarygeneralCollective Security The formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by any actor sometimes seen as presupposing the existence of a universal organization such as the United Nations to which both the aggressor and its opponents belongCurrently the UN follows a principle of The Three Pillars security economic development and human rights which are considered mutually necessary for any of them to succeed Security Council is responsible for maintaining international peace and security and for restoring peace when it break downs SC has tremendous power to define the existence and nature of a security threat to structure the response to such a threat and to enforce its decisions through mandatory directives to UN members United States Britain France Russia China are most important and permanent Resolutions require 9 votes from among the 15 membersCouncils ten nonpermanent members rotate onto the Council for twoyear termsMembers can abstain on resolutions an option that some permanent members use to register misgivings about a resolution without vetoing
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