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SOC 101

Soc 101 September 26, 2011 Socialization OUTLINE:  Nature versus nurture?  Extreme social isolation  Sociological theories of human development  Agents of socialization  Lifelong socialization Nature vs. Nurture Nature:  Sociobiology o Systematic study of how biology affects social behavior o Genetic inheritance a major factor in shaping human behavior Nurture:  Sociobiology o Environment  Society  Personal experience o Socialization Socialization: -Process through which an individual becomes integrated into a social group by learning about:  The group’s culture  His/her roles in that group  Norms, values, and skills -Lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals form a self-concept and develop their self-identity -Essential for:  Human development  Social stability -Inculcates new members to the dominate culture and specific subcultures Extreme Social Isolation -Nonhuman Primates  Rhesus monkeys (Harlow & Harlow, 1962; 1977): One wired monkey model with food, one terry cloth monkey model. Observed to see that monkeys clung to terry cloth mother, ran to wired monkey for food only and came back to terry cloth as soon as possible -Human Children  Anna: isolated in bedroom for years, fed milk most of life and a little oatmeal little, extremely weak, no muscles, no speech – slowly made improvements especially once in foster home with increased interaction.  Genie: never spoken too, strapped to toilet or trapped in sleeping bag, abused  Isabelle: very similar to anna, socially isolated until 6, more education in isabelles family, had one care giver - locked in room with deaf/mute mom, communicated through gestures/eye contact. Developed language skills: 6 years of developmental phases in 2. -Prolonged early isolation makes it difficult for a child to be fully socialized (especially past age 6) -Stages of “organic” development are related to the stages of socialization -Long and intimate training by significant others is essential to developing a sense of self Sociological Theories of Human Development -Self-concept  Our beliefs and feelings about ourselves  Our view of ourselves as a distinct, unique person  Our sense of who and what we are  Components o Physical self (how we view/experiences our bodies, how we feel in our own skin) o Active self (what you do with your body, activities) o Social self o Psychological self -Symbolic Interaction: how we use symbols and language through social interaction and what comes out of that  Socialization is a collective process: you have to be engaged with others  Children are active and creative agents in the socialization process  Self-identity: how we identify in relation to particular roles/groups that we’ve taken on o Our perception of what kind of person we are o We gain information about ourselves through language, symbols, and interaction with others o We interpret the messages we receive to construct our identity  Charles Horton Cooley – “Looking Glass Self” o A person’s sense of self is derives from the perceptions of others o 3 step process  1. We imagine how our personality and appearance will look to other people  2. We imagine how other people judge the appearance and personality we think we present  3. We develop a self-concept o We use our interactions with others as a mirror for our own thoughts and actions o Our sense of self is always developing as we interact with others o “Self and society go together”  The self can not exist without society  Society can not exist without individual interaction  George Herbert Mead – “Role Taking” o The process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from their standpoint.  Role taking (imagining what it would be like to be another role in your mind)  Role making (you start practicing role, anticipating)  Role playing (take on role, acting it yourself, has become part of self-concept) o Development of self  Self emerges in infants and young children as they:  Identify significant others  Develop language skills  Learn to understand symbols  Can represent themselves in their minds  “I” self  Subjective element of the self  Spontaneous and unique traits  How you judge yourself  “Me” self  Objective element of the self (you as an object judged by other people)  Internalized attitudes,
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