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Lecture 2

ATMO 201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Jet Stream, Cosmic Ray, Airglow

Atmospheric Sciences
Course Code
ATMO 201
Timothy Logan

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Lecture 2
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
11:29 AM
Role of Ozone
Chapman Cycle
o Conversion of diatomic oxygen (o2) to triatomic oxygen (o3) - o2+o=o3
Ozone absorbs harmful UV radiation
o Major pollutant at surface
Ozone hole
o Hold occurs naturally in South Pole during spring (October) but is enhanced by CFCs
CFCs (Chlorinated Fluorocarbon's)
o Bind with free oxygen atoms
o Disrupt or halt Chapman cycle
o Less ozone produced
Ozone minimum (aka Ozone "hole") is always there but gets worse with CFCs
Ozone "max" - located next to the Ozone minimum
Climate Change
"The Day After Toorrow" does’t happe like that
A lot of money has gone into researching climate change
The plight of Carbon Dioxide
o As of 2014, the concentration of CO2 has surpassed 400 ppm
o The temperature will increase and some say that if it surpasses a certain ppm the
temperature will never come down
o There is a staggering pattern in the concentration of co2, and it takes 6 months for it to
come down
Aka seasons! Summer = more co2 and winter = less
Co2 cycle
Natural and anthropogenic (manmade) additions
o Volcanic activity
Co2 is removed completely when it becomes fossilized.
o Carbon rock
o Animals absorb it, like shells and when they die, they sink to the bottom of the ocean
Co2 is removed partially when it is in organic form
o Vegetation
o Fossil Fuels - trees taking in co2 and then dying
Atmospheric Properties
Weather elements
o Temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, clouds, precipitation
These elements can be pieced together to form a "climatology" image over
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o Needs at least 10 years of continuous data by today's standards
Average kinetic energy of molecules
o Proportional to their speed
Measured by thermometer
o Liquid in glass, electronic, infrared (IR), mechanical
3 unites of measurement
o Fahrenheit - English
o Celsius - SI or metric
o Kelvin - absolute scale
Kelvin scale starts at zero and has no upper limit
o Absolute zero - no molecular motion!
o Has never seen it before
Conversions between scales
o C = 5/9 F - 32
o F = 9/5 C + 32
o K = C=273
OC = 32F = 273K
At the Schaeffer Point, water instantly becomes ice
o Water must become ice at (-40F)
Water does’t always freeze at F, it is the freezig eltig poit of water
(ice) at sea level
Average Planetary Temperature
o The Sun - 5800 K
o Earth - 288 K
o The moon - 100 K or 390 K
Two temperatures because the light side and dark side
o Which one(s) of these do not have weather?
o Space is almost 3K
Atmospheric Profile
Temperature normally decreases with height
o Go to Mt. Everest (9 km above sea level)
Lapse rate - rate at which air temperature decreases with height
o Average (-6.5 C or K/100 m)
o For dry air (-9.8 C or K/1000m)
Sahara Desert
o Good indication of stability of the atmosphere
Invasion layer - temperature increases with height
o About a mile above our heads
Earth has five distinct atmospheric parts
o Troposphere
o Stratosphere
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