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Lecture 2

BIMS 201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Triple Helix, Xist (Gene), Dna Replication

Biomedical Science
Course Code
BIMS 201
Elizabeth A.Crouch

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Chapter 11 Notes
silencing mechanisms: used to fine tune EXP w/o changing sequences
o methylation and acetylation (bulkier)
X-inactivation: body uses non-translated RNAs
o Triple helix w/ XIST X-inactivation
o Control mechanism
Heritable (from mother daughter cell) and gender-specific (imprinting)
Paternally (dad’s gee off / aterall (mom’s gee off
imprinted (not EXP)
o Oogenesis and spermatogenesis
Changes w/age: hormone EXP and hemoglobin
Can control gene EXP @ tissue-specific, organ-specific, and cell-specific level
o Single tissue has mix of cells = hormone-responsive
o Can change EXP based on chem. enviro. of cells
Transcription factors and how they interact w/promoters for genes
the’re helpig to trasrie
Chem. enviro. of cells: hormones present, etc.
Stem cell pluripotent multipotent differentiated
o mRNAs in cell become > restricted as become > differentiated
house-keeping genes: in all cells
o DNA pol., repair enzymes, histone proteins (chromatin)
Proteomics: study changes through time
o **Memorize 1 thing that changes in charts on slide 16 (in ppt)
o compare what changes b/w fetal period and adult period
promoters: pics from ch. 17
o transcription factors bind promoters to turn on DNA replication
o genes can have multiple promoters
benefit: have back-ups if 1 breaks down
fine-tunes transcription
o 1 binds better than the other
can pick if want to bind a little / a lot
o DNA binding proteins typically bind to major groove
Proteins that bind to minor groove will do something to DNA*
o R ours @ 5’ 3’
Transcription: DNA nucleotide mRNA nucleotide
o Template strand = complimentary to mRNA strand
Translation: mRNA nucleotide amino acids (proteins)
o Ca’t our i uleus
mRNA = processed
5’ ap dra as loop – splices on itself; molec. handle helps
bind to ribosomes (docking station for ribosomes)
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