BIMS 201 Lecture 2: Chapter 11 Notes

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Biomedical Science
BIMS 201
Elizabeth A.Crouch

41017 Chapter 11 Notes epigenetics silencing mechanisms: used to fine tune EXP wo changing sequences o methylation and acetylation (bulkier) Xinactivation: body uses nontranslated RNAs o Triple helix w XIST Xinactivation o Control mechanism Heritable (from mother daughter cell) and genderspecific (imprinting) Paternally (dads gene off) maternally (moms gene off) imprinted (not EXP) o Oogenesis and spermatogenesis Changes wage: hormone EXP and hemoglobin Can control gene EXP @ tissuespecific, organspecific, and cellspecific level o Single tissue has mix of cells = hormoneresponsive o Can change EXP based on chem. enviro. of cells Transcription factors and how they interact wpromoters for genes theyre helping to transcribe Chem. enviro. of cells: hormones present, etc. Stem cell pluripotent multipotent differentiated o mRNAs in cell become > restricted as become > differentiated housekeeping genes: in all cells o DNA pol., repair enzymes, histone proteins (chromatin) Proteomics: study changes through time o **Memorize 1 thing that changes in charts on slide 16 (in ppt) o compare what changes bw fetal period and adult period promoters: pics from ch. 17 o transcription factors bind promoters to turn on DNA replication o genes can have multiple promoters benefit: have backups if 1 breaks down finetunes transcription o 1 binds better than the other can pick if want to bind a little a lot o DNA binding proteins typically bind to major groove Proteins that bind to minor groove will do something to DNA* o Rxn occurs @ 5 3 Transcription: DNA nucleotide mRNA nucleotide o Template strand = complimentary to mRNA strand Translation: mRNA nucleotide amino acids (proteins) o Cant occur in nucleus mRNA = processed 5 cap (drawn as loop) splices on itself; molec. handle helps bind to ribosomes (docking station for ribosomes)
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