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United States (312,473)
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HIST 226 (116)
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Civil Rights Battles (1940s-1960s).docx

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Texas A&M University
HIST 226

I. Democracy abroad AND at home • African American - WW2 • Double V campaign • Victory against & over Hitler/white supremacy • Victory over racism in the US • Fighting against de jure(legal) discrimination o skin color o harsher to fight • Mexican Americans o de facto (by custom/tradition) discrimination o suppose to except second class status o Jaime Crow/ Juan Crow • Jim Crow was used against both groups: separating people based on race, culture, etc. II. The NAACPand Smith V. Allwright (1944) • NationalAssociation Advancement of Colored People o Founded in 1910s in TX o file lawsuits to helpAfrican Americans in TX o Smith wanted to guarantee the right to vote forAfrican Americans o TX is still largely a one-party state o Tried to get them to be able to vote in the primaries • Poll tax o Not first AfricanAmerican case to try and fight • 2 other cases • 1927 Nixon v. Herndon (Nixon =African American man) • 1932 Nixon v. Condon • Both went to supreme court ruled in Nixon's favor • TX state officials would come up with new laws to keep them from voting o Executive Committee after 1927 case • decided that only whites could vote in Democratic primaries o After 1932 case • decided that Democratic party was a private organization so it could decide its own rules o 1944 Smith v.Allwright • goes to supreme court  rule in favor of Smith • Democratic party is a state party • needs to follow 14th and 15th amendments • makes a dent • 1946 over 75,000 to 100,000African Americans in Tx have voted in an election and are participating in TX elections III. TheAmerican GI Forum and the LongoriaAffair, 1948-9 • dueling sides • Felix Longoria o death in WW2 in the Philippines helps Dr. Hector P. García • naval air station in Corpus Christie isn't opening beds to Mexican Americans • Mexican Americans having issues get GI Bill (1944)  money to buy homes • FormsAmerican GI Forum  helping Mexican American veterans  spreads mission not just Mexican American veterans but all Mexican Americans • education • LongoriaAffair  Felix Longoria was drafted into the U.S. army November 1944  killed in action by early 1945  his remains don't return to his hometown (Three Rivers) January 1949  his wife goes to the local funeral home • owner Mr. Kennedy new, only lived her
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