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Lecture 9

NUTR 211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Couscous, Thiamine, Quinoa


Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 211
Professor
Saundra Lorenz
Lecture
9

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Seed$=$embryonic$plant$+$nutrient$reserves
Concentrated$source$of$nutrients$needed$for$germination$and$early$
growth
Cereal$grains$(class$of$edible$grasses$that$produce$seeds)
Legumes$
Seeds/nuts$
Cereal$grains$and$legumes$predominantly$carbohydrate$and$
macronutrients$
Edible$seeds$=$
Ex$=$wheat,$rye,$barley,$corn,$rice$
Cereal$grains$
Provide$different$nutrients
Husk$
!
Every$cereal$grain$has$one
!
Not$in$whole$grains
!
Hull$
Surround$kernal
!
About$14%$of$kernel$weight
!
Underneath$bran$allurum
!
Protein,$thiamin,$fiber,$phosphorous
Lost$with$bran$when$refined$=$
!
Bran$
83%$of$the$kernel
!
Predominantly$complex$carb$in$form$of$starch$
!
Over$time,$breeders$have$increased$amount$of$endosperm
!
Used$more$in$manufacturing
!
Has$a$few$B$vitamins
!
Small$amount$of$protein$
!
Endosperm$
Makes$up$3%$of$kernel
!
Lipid$storage
!
Largely$unsaturated$fat
!
Susceptible$ to$lipid$oxidation
!
Refining$removes$and$increases$shelf$life
!
Vitamin$E$=$natural$antioxidant
!
B$vitamins$=$niacin,$thiamin,$riboflavin
!
Germ$
Individual$kernels$composed$of$
About$75%$carbohydrates
Incomplete$protein
!
About$10%$protein$
Usually$unsaturated$fatty$acids$
!
About$1Y2%$fat/lipid
Generally$low$moisture$food$
!
About$11%$moisture
About$2%$vitamins$and$minerals$
Nutrient$composition$of$cereal$grains$
Rolled$oats$
!
Can$have$milled$whole$grains$or$milled$refined$
grains
!
Taking$kernel$either$in$its$whole$form$or$in$the$refined$
form$and$we're$breaking$it$down$into$smaller$pieces$
Breaking$kernel$into$smaller$pieces$
Can$still$be$chunky$or$pulverized$into$flour$
Milling$=$also$processed$grain
!
Milling$vs.$refining$
Removes$hull,$bran,$aleurone,$and$germ$
!
Fortifying$=$adding$a$nutrient$that$may$or$may$not$
already$be$there$
Replacing$lost$nutrients$that$were$lost$in$
processing$
!
Enriching$=$putting$stuff$back$that$you$initially$took$out
Mandatory$to$enrich$and$fortify$refined$grains$
!
Adding$some$nutrients$back$that$were$lost$as$part$of$
refining$process$but$they're$not$adding$everything$back$
Not$adding$fiber,$vitamin$E,$or$unsaturated$fatty$acids$
back$
Not$nutritional$equivalent$to$whole$grains$
!
Refining$grains$
Cereal$grains$
Dietary$Guidelines$for$Americans$(DGA)$recommend$6Y10$
servings$(1$ounce$servings)$per$day$ based$on$calorie$needs
!
Recommend$3$servings$(1$ounce)$whole$grains$per$day$
!
Consumption$ data$
Cereal$grain$intake$(U.S)
Enhance$digestibility$of$starch$when$you$cook$it$in$water$
Grain$determines$amount$of$water$and$time$
!
Starting$with$Hot$water$YY>$fluffier$grain,$separate$grains
Starting$with$Cold$water$YY>$stickier,$gummier$
Bring$water$to$boil,$salt$water,$add$grain,$bring$back$to$boil,$
cover,$reduce$heat,$let$stand$after$cooked$
!
Perfectly$cooked$$=$tender$ with$slight$"bite"$in$center$
!
Too$much$water$=$mushy
!
Too$little$water$=$crunch/tough$
!
Simmering$method$(for$unYmilled$grains)
Bring$required$amount$of$liquid$to$a$boil
!
Add$measured$cereal/meal$in$a$steady$stream$while$stirring$to$
prevent$lumping$
!
Stir$until$it$starts$to$thicken,$but$don't$over$agitate
!
Note$ =$not$all$cereal$grains$must$be$covered$while$
cooking
Reduce$heat$to$simmer,$cover$and$cook$to$desire$doneness$
!
Simmering$method$(for$milled$cereal$grains/grain$meals)
Heat$fat/oil$in$pan
!
Add$grain$and$stir$to$toast$slightly$
!
Add$flavored$liquid$
!
Return$to$simmer
!
Cover
!
Redue$heat$and$finish$cooking$on$stove$ top$or$in$350$F$oven$
!
Pilaf$method$(for$unYmilled$grains)
Heat$fat/oil$in$saucepan$or$saucier
!
Traditionally,$most$common$grain$using$this$method$is$
rice
Other$grains$=$farro,$barley,$orzo$
Add$grain$and$sate$until$grains$slightly$toasted$
!
Add$hot$stock$(or$other$cooking$liquid)$in$small$increments$
(1/2$cup$at$a$time)$and$cook,$stirring$occasionally$until$liquid$is$
absorbed$
!
Continue$adding$liquid$in$this$manner$until$all$liquid$is$used$
and/or$grain$is$cooked$to$an$al$dente$texture
!
Often$finished$with$grated$cheese,$butter,$or$mascarpone$
!
Risotto$method$
Smaller$size$particle$=$less$cooking$time
Size/preYprocessing
!
Bran$increases$cooking$time$
Whole$vs.$refined
!
Alkaline$pH$speeds$cooking
pH$of$cooking$liquid$
!
Pro$=$less$likely$to$scorch$cooking$utensil,$great$for$
reheating
Con$=$no$time$savings$
Using$a$microwave$to$cook$grains?
!
Considerations$with$cooking$grains$
MoistYheat$methods$ of$grain$preparation$
Cool,$dry,$airtight$container
Away$from$moisture
Refined$grains$
!
Airtight/refrigerate
Whole$grain$flours$=$freeze$if$you$don't$use$it$up$quickly
Whole$grains$
!
Uncooked
Refrigerate$for$up$to$a$week$
!
Cooked$
Storage$
High$protein
Rich$in$carotenoids
Most$commonly$made$from$durham$wheat$YYY>$semolina
!
Rice,$corn,$quinoa,$legumes$
Italian$paste$=$mainly$semolinaYbased
Wheat$=$somen/udon
!
Rice$=$vermicelli
!
Buckwheat$=$soba
!
Bean$starch$=$cellophane
!
Asian$pasta
But,$may$be$made$from$almost$any$grain$flour
!
Coarsely$ground$flour$plus$water$or$eggs$to$create$a$paste$or$
unleavened$dough,$which$is$rolled$and$cut$OR$extruded$into$shapes$
Pasta$
4$quarts$of$water$=$8$oz.$of$pasta
!
Bring$water$to$boil$in$a$large$heavy$stockpot/saucepan
!
It$doesn't$really$mater$
!
Should$you$add$oil$to$pasta$water?
Add$salt$to$water$as$bring$to$boil
!
Add$pasta$and$maintain$boiling$temperature
!
Fresh$vs.$dry
Cooking$time$vary$based$on$size
!
Cooking$
Italian$pastas$=$"al$dente"$YYY>$tender,$with$"bite"$in$the$center
!
Asian$pasta$=$fully$cooked$and$very$tender
!
Desired$texture?
Drain$
Pasta$preparation
Amaranth
Buckwheat
Corn$
Oats$
Quinoa$
Rice$
Identify$grains$that$are$glutenYfree
Couscous$
Barley
Farro
Orzo$
Wheat$
Identify$gluten$grains
Seeds%&Cereals,%grains,%legumes,%and%nuts
Monday,$October$17,$2016
12:41$PM

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Seed$=$embryonic$plant$+$nutrient$reserves
Concentrated$source$of$nutrients$needed$for$germination$and$early$
growth
Cereal$grains$(class$of$edible$grasses$that$produce$seeds)
Legumes$
Seeds/nuts$
Cereal$grains$and$legumes$predominantly$carbohydrate$and$
macronutrients$
Edible$seeds$=$
Grasses$that$bear$seeds$that$are$edible
Ex$=$wheat,$rye,$barley,$corn,$rice$
Cereal$grains$
Provide$different$nutrients
Husk$
!
Every$cereal$grain$has$one
!
Not$in$whole$grains
!
Hull$
Surround$kernal
!
About$14%$of$kernel$weight
!
Underneath$bran$allurum
!
Protein,$thiamin,$fiber,$phosphorous
Lost$with$bran$when$refined$=$
!
Bran$
83%$of$the$kernel
!
Predominantly$complex$carb$in$form$of$starch$
!
Over$time,$breeders$have$increased$amount$of$endosperm
!
Used$more$in$manufacturing
!
Has$a$few$B$vitamins
!
Small$amount$of$protein$
!
Endosperm$
Makes$up$3%$of$kernel
!
Lipid$storage
!
Largely$unsaturated$fat
!
Susceptible$ to$lipid$oxidation
!
Refining$removes$and$increases$shelf$life
!
Vitamin$E$=$natural$antioxidant
!
B$vitamins$=$niacin,$thiamin,$riboflavin
!
Germ$
Individual$kernels$composed$of$
About$75%$carbohydrates
Incomplete$protein
!
About$10%$protein$
Usually$unsaturated$fatty$acids$
!
About$1Y2%$fat/lipid
Generally$low$moisture$food$
!
About$11%$moisture
About$2%$vitamins$and$minerals$
Nutrient$composition$of$cereal$grains$
Rolled$oats$
!
Can$have$milled$whole$grains$or$milled$refined$
grains
!
Taking$kernel$either$in$its$whole$form$or$in$the$refined$
form$and$we're$breaking$it$down$into$smaller$pieces$
Breaking$kernel$into$smaller$pieces$
Can$still$be$chunky$or$pulverized$into$flour$
Milling$=$also$processed$grain
!
Milling$vs.$refining$
Removes$hull,$bran,$aleurone,$and$germ$
!
Fortifying$=$adding$a$nutrient$that$may$or$may$not$
already$be$there$
Replacing$lost$nutrients$that$were$lost$in$
processing$
!
Enriching$=$putting$stuff$back$that$you$initially$took$out
Mandatory$to$enrich$and$fortify$refined$grains$
!
Adding$some$nutrients$back$that$were$lost$as$part$of$
refining$process$but$they're$not$adding$everything$back$
Not$adding$fiber,$vitamin$E,$or$unsaturated$fatty$acids$
back$
Not$nutritional$equivalent$to$whole$grains$
!
Refining$grains$
Cereal$grains$
Dietary$Guidelines$for$Americans$(DGA)$recommend$6Y10$
servings$(1$ounce$servings)$per$day$ based$on$calorie$needs
!
Recommend$3$servings$(1$ounce)$whole$grains$per$day$
!
Consumption$ data$
Cereal$grain$intake$(U.S)
Enhance$digestibility$of$starch$when$you$cook$it$in$water$
Grain$determines$amount$of$water$and$time$
!
Starting$with$Hot$water$YY>$fluffier$grain,$separate$grains
Starting$with$Cold$water$YY>$stickier,$gummier$
Bring$water$to$boil,$salt$water,$add$grain,$bring$back$to$boil,$
cover,$reduce$heat,$let$stand$after$cooked$
!
Perfectly$cooked$$=$tender$ with$slight$"bite"$in$center$
!
Too$much$water$=$mushy
!
Too$little$water$=$crunch/tough$
!
Simmering$method$(for$unYmilled$grains)
Bring$required$amount$of$liquid$to$a$boil
!
Add$measured$cereal/meal$in$a$steady$stream$while$stirring$to$
prevent$lumping$
!
Stir$until$it$starts$to$thicken,$but$don't$over$agitate
!
Note$ =$not$all$cereal$grains$must$be$covered$while$
cooking
Reduce$heat$to$simmer,$cover$and$cook$to$desire$doneness$
!
Simmering$method$(for$milled$cereal$grains/grain$meals)
Heat$fat/oil$in$pan
!
Add$grain$and$stir$to$toast$slightly$
!
Add$flavored$liquid$
!
Return$to$simmer
!
Cover
!
Redue$heat$and$finish$cooking$on$stove$ top$or$in$350$F$oven$
!
Pilaf$method$(for$unYmilled$grains)
Heat$fat/oil$in$saucepan$or$saucier
!
Traditionally,$most$common$grain$using$this$method$is$
rice
Other$grains$=$farro,$barley,$orzo$
Add$grain$and$sate$until$grains$slightly$toasted$
!
Add$hot$stock$(or$other$cooking$liquid)$in$small$increments$
(1/2$cup$at$a$time)$and$cook,$stirring$occasionally$until$liquid$is$
absorbed$
!
Continue$adding$liquid$in$this$manner$until$all$liquid$is$used$
and/or$grain$is$cooked$to$an$al$dente$texture
!
Often$finished$with$grated$cheese,$butter,$or$mascarpone$
!
Risotto$method$
Smaller$size$particle$=$less$cooking$time
Size/preYprocessing
!
Bran$increases$cooking$time$
Whole$vs.$refined
!
Alkaline$pH$speeds$cooking
pH$of$cooking$liquid$
!
Pro$=$less$likely$to$scorch$cooking$utensil,$great$for$
reheating
Con$=$no$time$savings$
Using$a$microwave$to$cook$grains?
!
Considerations$with$cooking$grains$
MoistYheat$methods$ of$grain$preparation$
Cool,$dry,$airtight$container
Away$from$moisture
Refined$grains$
!
Airtight/refrigerate
Whole$grain$flours$=$freeze$if$you$don't$use$it$up$quickly
Whole$grains$
!
Uncooked
Refrigerate$for$up$to$a$week$
!
Cooked$
Storage$
High$protein
Rich$in$carotenoids
Most$commonly$made$from$durham$wheat$YYY>$semolina
!
Rice,$corn,$quinoa,$legumes$
Italian$paste$=$mainly$semolinaYbased
Wheat$=$somen/udon
!
Rice$=$vermicelli
!
Buckwheat$=$soba
!
Bean$starch$=$cellophane
!
Asian$pasta
But,$may$be$made$from$almost$any$grain$flour
!
Coarsely$ground$flour$plus$water$or$eggs$to$create$a$paste$or$
unleavened$dough,$which$is$rolled$and$cut$OR$extruded$into$shapes$
Pasta$
4$quarts$of$water$=$8$oz.$of$pasta
!
Bring$water$to$boil$in$a$large$heavy$stockpot/saucepan
!
It$doesn't$really$mater$
!
Should$you$add$oil$to$pasta$water?
Add$salt$to$water$as$bring$to$boil
!
Add$pasta$and$maintain$boiling$temperature
!
Fresh$vs.$dry
Cooking$time$vary$based$on$size
!
Cooking$
Italian$pastas$=$"al$dente"$YYY>$tender,$with$"bite"$in$the$center
!
Asian$pasta$=$fully$cooked$and$very$tender
!
Desired$texture?
Drain$
Pasta$preparation
Amaranth
Buckwheat
Corn$
Oats$
Quinoa$
Rice$
Identify$grains$that$are$glutenYfree
Couscous$
Barley
Farro
Orzo$
Wheat$
Identify$gluten$grains
Seeds%&Cereals,%grains,%legumes,%and%nuts
Monday,$October$17,$2016 12:41$PM
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