PSYC 107 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Preterm Birth, Birth Weight, Motor Coordination

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12/6/15
Chapter 5 Notes
Module 5.1
Cross-sectional study=compares groups of individuals of diff. ages @ same
time
oProblematic when studying adults
Longitudinal study=follows single group of individuals as they dev.
oTakes yrs. to complete
oNot every1 who participates 1st time is willing and available later
Selective attrition=tendency for certain kinds of ppl to drop out of study
oKind of ppl who stay differ in many ways than those who quit
oPsychologists compensate by discarding data for ppl who left
Sequential design=researcher stats w/ppl of diff. ages and studies them again
@ later times
Cohort effects=ppl of diff. generations differ in many ways
Cohort=group of ppl born @ particular time/group of ppl who enter
organization @ particular time
Era in which you grew up=powerful influence on psychological dev.
The Fetus and the Newborn
Zygote=fertilized egg cellfetus=about 8 weeks after conception
6 weeks after: brain produces few movements=spontaneous=NOT elicited by
any stimulus
omuscles and nerves controlling these movements mature b4 sense
organs
oessential for spinal cord properly dev.
b4 birth:
osense organs appear
ohead and eyes turn toward sounds
obrain alternates b/w waking and sleeping
oyawning and hiccupping
growing body receives nutrition from mother
oundernourished motherssmall babies
opremature birth and very low birth weight correlate w/later deficits
in learning, cognitive ability, and emotional self-control
twins: 1 w/lower birth weight still dev. just as well as other
dev. fetus is vulnerable to harm from any of wide variety teratogens
any drug that mother takes reaches fetus’ dev. brain
fetal alcohol syndrome=if mother drinks too much alc during pregnancy,
infant may dev. this=condition marked by malformations of face, heart, and
ears; nervous system damage, including seizures, hyperactivity; and
impairments of learning, memory, problem solving, attn., and motor
coordination
osymptoms range from nonesevere dep. on amt. and timing of
mother’s drinking
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nervous system damage bc dev. neurons require persistent excitation to
survive
ow/out it, they activate self-destruct program
oalc interferes w/brain’s main excitatory neurotransmitter=glutamate
ion=and facilities main inhibitory neurotransmitter=GABADEC
neurons’ arousalself-destruct
resilience=relates to genetic influences, edu., and supportive relatives and
friends
Infancy
infants don’t have same concept of face as adults
oimprovement dep. on experience
older children and adults are better able to recognize faces of own ethnic
group/(s) similar to them bc certain brain areas become highly sensitive to
small deviations from avg. face
omost ppl pay > attn. to in-group
crawling dev. fear of heights
habituation=DEC response to repeated stimulus
dishabituation=when change in stimulus INC previously habituated response
omonitoring this tells us if hear difference b/w 2 sounds
newborns learn sound of mother’s voice/language
Jean Piaget’s View of Cognitive Dev.
fascinated that so many children of given age gave same incorrect answer to
given qconc: children have qualitatively diff. thought processes from adults
as children dev. intellectually, they do > than accumulate facts, they construct
new mental processes
behavior is based on schema=org. way of interacting w/objects
assimilation=applying old schema to new objects/problems
accommodation=modifying old schema to fit new object/problem
equilibration=est. of harmony/balance b/w assimilation and accommodation
okey to intellectual growth
4 stages of child intellectual dev.:
osensorimotor: birth2 yrs.
@ this early age, behavior is mostly simple motor responses to
stimuli
respond only to what see and hear @ moment
fail to respond to objects remember seeing even few seconds
ago
age when 1st show self-recognition is about same as when
begin to act embarrassed
opreoperational: b4 27 yrs.
child lacks operations=reversible mental processes
3 aspects of thought:
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Document Summary

Cross-sectional study=compares groups of individuals of diff. ages @ same. Longitudinal study=follows single group of individuals as they dev: takes yrs. to complete, not every1 who participates 1st time is willing and available later. Selective attrition=tendency for certain kinds of ppl to drop out of study: kind of ppl who stay differ in many ways than those who quit, psychologists compensate by discarding data for ppl who left. Sequential design=researcher stats w/ppl of diff. ages and studies them again. Cohort effects=ppl of diff. generations differ in many ways. Cohort=group of ppl born @ particular time/group of ppl who enter organization @ particular time. Era in which you grew up=powerful influence on psychological dev. 6 weeks after: brain produces few movements=spontaneous=not elicited by any stimulus: muscles and nerves controlling these movements mature b4 sense organs, essential for spinal cord properly dev. Dishabituation=when change in stimulus inc previously habituated response: monitoring this tells us if hear difference b/w 2 sounds.

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