PSYC 107 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Robert Sternberg, Twin Study

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9/17/15
Notes: Chapter 9
Video 1
Measuring intelligence=long problem in psych.
oCharles Spearman explored “psychometric” approach=measuring
intelligence by admin. specific “mental tests” to ppl (ex: following
directions, matching colors, doing arithmetic, spelling)
Suggested ppl do have “specific” abilities (ex: mechanical,
arithmetical, reasoning, and logical)
Claimed abilities “overlap”rep. by “general” intellectual
ability (g)
Scores across diff. mental tests are similar (highly correlated)
oSomeone who does well on 1 testdoes well on others
oIdea of “general intelligence”
All tests measure single underlying ability or each specific
ability dev. to similar level over time
Raymond Cattell’s idea
oFluid intelligence=intelligence you’re born w/; ability to reason and
effectively use one’s knowledge
High: easily solve word probs.; org. info and identify
associations of facts
oCrystallized intelligence=things learned and skills acquired
throughout 1’s life
Ex: knowing how to tie shoelaces; solve algebra
Howard Gardner: if intellectual abilities could be tested in pure form (ex:
music/logic)find “multiple intelligences”=unrelated
o8 specializations/skills
musical, bodily, logical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal,
intrapersonal, naturalistic
Robert Sternberg: Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
oAnalytical=ability to think critically
Similar to fluid=ability to evaluate prob. and produce path to
solution
oCreative=ability to effectively solve new probs. that arise in life and to
generate new ways to solve old probs.
oPractical=ability to do things that’re productive and beneficial
IQ=intelligence quotient=scores from tests deisgned to predict person’s
performance in school/academic settings; (quotient)(100)
oQuotient: mental/chrono.
Mental age=concept dev. by Alfred Binet
Originated idea of assigning mental age to children who
needed extra academic help in school
Chronological age=actual biological age, time since birth
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Video 2:
IQ tests designed for children/adults/eliminate cultural bias=knowledge
some groups have based on surroundings
Research q: intelligence levels set @ birth or enviro. influences?
Twin studies used bc identical twins=similar genetic makeup
oTwins raised by diff. famsgood opportunity to compare IQ’s
Studies show have similar IQ scores compared to identical
twins raised in same enviro. intelligence level=primarily
function of genetic makeup NOT enviro. influence
Impoverished enviro. can inhibit intellectual dev. regardless of genetics
Dev. IQ tests requires evaluation process including items on test, procedures
for admin. test, process of scoring
Standardization=process of evaluating q’s, est. rules for admin. test,
interpreting score
oEst. “norms” of test=measure of how freq. various test scores occur
Collected by admin. test to multiple samples of pop.
Scores evaluated to determine tests reliability, validity, and
bias
Reliable=similar scores for similar groups of test-takers
oTest-retest reliability=procedure in which same
group takes test @ 2 diff. times
oIf reliable: 2 sets of scores=high + correlation
High validity=tests what it’s supposed to
IQ tests evaluated for bias
oSome groups perform better than others (overstates true
performance)
oSome groups perform worse than others (understates true
performance)
Module 9.1:
Defining intelligence=hardresearchgood measurement
Spearman: psychometric approach=measurement of individual diffs. in
performance
og=general ability
os=specific ability (unknown # of)
omonarchic theory: included dominant ability/monarch (g) that ruled
over lesser abilities
all tasks measure a single underlying ability
important for intellectual tasks=holding info in memory, ability to shift attn.,
and process info quicklycomplete > complicated tasks
alternative g explanation: several types of intelligence correlate bc grow in
same ways (ex: genes, health, nutrition, edu.)all forms depend on
most intellectual tasks require: attn., working memory, and speed
Cattell: fluid vs. crystallized intelligence
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Document Summary

9/17/15: charles spearman explored psychometric approach=measuring intelligence by admin. specific mental tests to ppl (ex: following directions, matching colors, doing arithmetic, spelling) Suggested ppl do have specific abilities (ex: mechanical, arithmetical, reasoning, and logical) Claimed abilities overlap rep. by general intellectual ability (g) Scores across diff. mental tests are similar (highly correlated: someone who does well on 1 test does well on others, idea of general intelligence . All tests measure single underlying ability or each specific ability dev. to similar level over time. Raymond cattell"s idea: fluid intelligence=intelligence you"re born w/; ability to reason and effectively use one"s knowledge. ; org. info and identify associations of facts: crystallized intelligence=things learned and skills acquired throughout 1"s life. Ex: knowing how to tie shoelaces; solve algebra. Howard gardner: if intellectual abilities could be tested in pure form (ex: music/logic) find multiple intelligences =unrelated: 8 specializations/skills. Robert sternberg: triarchic theory of intelligence: analytical=ability to think critically.

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