PSYC 107 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Eleanor Rosch, Spreading Activation, Deep Structure And Surface Structure

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10/4/15
Chapter 8 Notes:
Video #1:
Encoding and retrieving mems are examples of mental processing=cognition
Cognition=processes involved in thinking and using mems. (info, knowledge)
in order to solve probs/reach goals
Attn. used to direct/focus cognitive processes on particular mems/stimuli in
enviro.
oTendency to respond to and to remember some stimuli > others
oLimited cognitive resource
oReducing amt. of attn. needed for task=important goal for designers of
machines and equipment ppl use in daily activities
oAttentional demand=cognitive load
Shifting attn. from 1 thing to another can happen in 2 ways
oConscious intention/control: “top down” phrase=deliberately decide
to shift attn.
Attentive process=1 that requires searching through items in
series
oAutomatically (w/out conscious effort/intention): “bottom up”
phrase=mental processing of stimuli in enviro. that’re detected by our
sensory receptors=processing of those sensory signals before we’re
consciously aware of them=”pre-attentive” processing=when anything
differs drastically from items around it in size, shape,
color/movement=stands out immediately
Controlled by peripheral stimuli; flows to anything
unusual=out of context
“change blindness”=phenomenon that occurs when viewing 2 images of same
scene; failure in noticing diff. in 2 images
owhen observing scene: only enough attn. used to understand meaning
of scene (“gist”) w/out focusing on unneeded details
ofailure to detect changes in pts. of a scene
oif anything moves/changes its appearance suddenly, it automatically
draws attn., but seldom notice changes that occur slowly/between 1
view and another
ounlikely to notice changes if working memory is occupied
oconc.: don’t maintain detailed rep. of what you see/hear; hold few
details, but can’t notice everything
Module 8.1
conflict in attn.: even when you’re doing only 1 task, your attn. level varies
omind wandersthinking about something unrelated to task and ability
to process relevant info decreases
Stroop Effect=tendency to read words instead of saying color of ink
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD): easy distraction, impulsiveness,
moodiness, and failure to follow through on plans
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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): same except w/excessive
activity and “fidgetiness”
oSymptoms grow worse when children don’t get enough sleep
oBehavior improvements after physical exercise
oCauses: genetic factors, depends on enviro., low socioeconomic status
fam., fetal alcohol exposure, lead poisoning, epilepsy, or emotional
stress
Usually unknown
oMild abnormalities in certain brain areas; no consistencies to aid in
diagnosis
oPsychologists doubt ADHD is single disorder
oPpl w/ADHD easily pay attn. to anything care about; prob.=shifting
attn. quickly and appropriately
Choice-Delay Task: immediate reward
Stop-Signal Task: have trouble inhibiting response, even after
short delays
oMost common treatment=stimulant drugs (ex: methylphenidate)
Improve school performance and everyday behaviors; increase
attn. span of normal children
Behavioral methods, interacting w/nature
Categorizing=major step in cognition
oEleanor Rosch: argued many categories best described by
familiar/typical examples=prototypes
oMember, nonmember, or borderline case of category depends on how
closely something matches
oSaves enormous effort overall
oSpreading activation=thinking about 1 of concepts shown in figure
will active/prime concepts linked to it
oPriming=concept gets it started; reading/hearing 1 word makes it
easier to think of/recognize related word; seeing something makes it
easier to recognize related object; important during reading
Video #2:
Attending to things in enviro. is usally followed by mental process of
“recognizing” what those things are
Recognition=process of accessing and retrieving memory for that thing
Cognitive psychologists have proposed that mems. are org. in brain
oHierarchical Model: org. mems. into categories w/general categories
toward top w/> specific categories below
Constructed as we go through life learning about what things
are and how they’re related to other similar things
Research shows that it takes diff. amt. of time to answer
q’s about things in memory
oNon-hierarchical=simply has our mems (knowledge concepts) rep. by
nodes and connected by links to form network
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Node=memory/piece of knowledge connected to related
knowledge by links of diff. lengths
Shorter link b/w nodes=> related knowledge concepts
are
Theory: proposes that “activation” (bring it into conscious
awareness) will activate nearby, related mems. as activation
spreads w/in network
Spreading activation primes related concepts to easily
come into conscious awareness
Priming=process of activating nearby concepts through
spreading activation
Video #3:
Language=system of communicating using symbols, written/auditory, and
set of rules, grammar, for combining those symbols
Types of language symbols
oPhonemes=unit of sound; in terms of language=no meaning
associated w/it; meaningless symbol
oMorphemes=unit of meaning w/in language
Every animal species has some form of communication
Only human language possesses property of productivity=through use of
symbols and grammatical rules, human language provides means for
expressing unlimited # of sentences, & so, unlimited # of thoughts and ideas
oEvery new sentence person writes/speaks=an example
oIt’s possible for 2 diff. sentences to mean exactly same thing
Words that make up sentence=surface structure for each of 2 expressions
oMeaning associated w/each of 2 expressions=deep structure (2 diff.
surface structures)
o1 surface structure and 2 possible deep structures
Module 8.2:
psychologists study problem-solving behavior and decision making partly to
understand thought processes and partly to look for ways to help ppl reason
> effectively
types of thinking and problem solving:
oSystem 1: quick, automatic processes and for q’s we think are easy;
proceeds unconsciously/@ least w/out much effort; saves time and
energyrely on >
Relies heavily on: heuristic=strategy for simplifying problem
and generating satisfactory guess; provide quick guidance
when you’re willing/forced to accept some possibility of error
and work well most of time
Helpful but leads astray when rely on it inappropriately
Representativeness heuristic=assumption that item
resembles members of category is prob. also in that
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Document Summary

Encoding and retrieving mems are examples of mental processing=cognition. Cognition=processes involved in thinking and using mems. (info, knowledge) in order to solve probs/reach goals. Shifting attn. from 1 thing to another can happen in 2 ways: conscious intention/control: top down phrase=deliberately decide to shift attn. Controlled by peripheral stimuli; flows to anything unusual=out of context. : don"t maintain detailed rep. of what you see/hear; hold few details, but can"t notice everything. : even when you"re doing only 1 task, your attn. level varies: mind wanders thinking about something unrelated to task and ability to process relevant info decreases. Stroop effect=tendency to read words instead of saying color of ink. Attention deficit disorder (add): easy distraction, impulsiveness, moodiness, and failure to follow through on plans. Usually unknown: mild abnormalities in certain brain areas; no consistencies to aid in diagnosis, psychologists doubt adhd is single disorder, ppl w/adhd easily pay attn. to anything care about; prob. =shifting attn. quickly and appropriately.

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