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Lecture 14

WFSC 301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Electrophysiology, Guillain–Barré SyndromePremium

4 pages68 viewsSpring 2017

Department
Wildlife & Fisheries Sci.
Course Code
WFSC 301
Professor
Walter Cook
Lecture
14

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Tuesday, March 7, 2017 at 3459 PM
Lecture 14: Botulism
Etiologic agent: Clostridium botulinum
gram positive
most potent naturally occurring toxin
found in soil and marin sediments
Hosts: avian species and many mammals
anaerobic
Common Names: Limberneck, Western duck sickness
Worldwide distribution:
mostly found in the US and canada
Toxin Type:
C:
- wildbirds, cattle, horses, poultry
- occurs in west of mississppi river
- July - September and even December/
January
- almost all avian species are susceptible
E:
- not frequent in the US but found in the great lake
regions
- fish eating birds
- loons and gulls
A: poultry
Signs:
causes CNS problems
labored breathing
paralysis
Gross lesions:
None but maggots commonly found in crop and signs of
drowning can be observed
Diagnosis:
Mouse protection test
• ELISA
Treatment:
antitoxin - 75-90% success
- expensive
Waterfowl can recover on their own
Immunization in cattle of Types C and D toxoid
Early introduction of antitoxin
Prevention and control
collect and dispose dead birds
remove fish carcass
fly control
• sterilization
Bovine/Cervid Botulism “Shaker foal syndrome, bulbar paralysis. Loin
disease, Lamziekte” -
Can affect most animal species
Cattle are more sensitive to the neurotoxin
One gram of dried flesh contains enough toxin to kill an
adult
• baratii
botulinum - most common
• butyricum
Signs:
• drooling
• weakness
paralysis
NO treatment = 65% death chance
Diagnosis:
difficult to diagnose
• ELISA
• ECL
cultures may be grown from tissues
Treatment:
Dietary deficincies should be corrected quickly
Immunization in cattle of types C and D toxoid proving
effective in some herds
Vaccination is effective in endemic areas
Human Botulism
- C. botulinum
-Types A, B, E, and F
Five categories:
Foodborne botulism
- Symptoms:
- nausea
- vomiting
- cramps
- Dry mouth
- blurred vision
- Diagnosis
- stool cultures
- mouse inoculation
Wound botulism
- Symptoms
- similar to foodborne except no GI symptoms
- Diagnosis
- Serum toxin
- Stool culture
- Tissue sample
Infant botulism
- Symptoms
- constipation
- weakness
- Diagnosis
- Stool Cultures
Adult infectious botulism
- Symptoms
- disease may simulate Guillain BArre
Syndrome
- Diagnosis
- Stool Cultures
Inadvertent
- symptoms
- weakness
- electrophysiologic abnormalities
- Diagnosis
Common Names:
Botulinum toxin
Toxinum botulinum
Botulinum A toxin
haemagglutinin complex
Prevention and Control:
process canned foods
education the public
avoid feeding children under 12 months honey
Signs:
Foo
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