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Lecture 1- Anatomical Organization.docx

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BIO 141

Lecture 1: Anatomical Organization What are Anatomy and Physiology? I. Anatomy: Study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another A. Types of Anatomy: 1. Gross a. Regional b. Systemic c. Surface 2. Microscopic a. Cellular b. Histology 3. Developmental a. Embryology II. Physiology: Study of the function of the body’s machinery; need to know underlying anatomy to explain physiology A. Typed based on specific organ systems B. Requires understanding of chemistry and physics (next two lectures) C. Function reflects structure III. Organization of the Human Body: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal A. Tissue: similar cells with common function (Chapter 4) 1. Types of tissue: epithelia, muscle, connective, nervous B. Organ: structure with two or more tissue types (usually all four) C. Organ System: Organs that work closely with one another to achieve a common function 1. Examples: cardiovascular, digestive, nervous D. Organismal: (highest level) sum of all structural levels working in unison to promote life IV. Maintaining Life A. Necessary life functions 1. Boundaries 2. Movement 3. Responsiveness 4. Digestion 5. Metabolism 6. Excretion 7. Reproduction 8. Growth B. Requirements for life 1. Nutrients 2. Oxygen 3. Water 4. Normal body temperature 5. Atmospheric pressure V. Regulation of Bodily Activity A. Homeostasis: ability to maintain stable internal conditions 1. Most organ systems work in concert to keep condition within a narrow range a. Primarily achieved by nervous and endocrine function 2. Control system design: a. Variable: factor or event b
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