Destruction of the Past
Main Agencies of Destruction
1) Construction of roads, quarries, dams, etc.
o Easily recognizable.
2) Agricultural intensification.
o E.g.: Forest plantations now cover what was open land, and tree roots are
destroying archaeological sites.
3) Conflict (War)
o Destruction can be caused by two nations in conflict either deliberately or
The Response: Survey, Conservation, and Mitigation
- Development of public archaeology: the acceptance that public and government have a
responsibility to avoid unnecessary destruction of heritage.
o Before major developments are undertaken (constructions), there must be a
survey or assessment of the likely effects of the development upon possible
o Done in order to locate unknown archaeological sites
2) Conservation and Mitigation
o CRM (Cultural Resource Management)/ Applied Archaeology: Set of laws and
regulations practiced to manage historic sites.
Most surveys and recovery projects in the USA are carried out by private