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Lecture 3

ANTH 20633 Lecture 3: Archeology Notes Study Guide 2

2 Pages
14 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 20633
Professor
David Aftandilian
Lecture
3

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Archeology Notes
Destruction of the Past
Main Agencies of Destruction
1) Construction of roads, quarries, dams, etc.
o Easily recognizable.
2) Agricultural intensification.
o E.g.: Forest plantations now cover what was open land, and tree roots are
destroying archaeological sites.
3) Conflict (War)
o Destruction can be caused by two nations in conflict either deliberately or
accidentally.
Minor:
- Tourism
- Looting
The Response: Survey, Conservation, and Mitigation
- Development of public archaeology: the acceptance that public and government have a
responsibility to avoid unnecessary destruction of heritage.
1) Survey
o Before major developments are undertaken (constructions), there must be a
survey or assessment of the likely effects of the development upon possible
archaeological remains.
o Done in order to locate unknown archaeological sites
2) Conservation and Mitigation
o CRM (Cultural Resource Management)/ Applied Archaeology: Set of laws and
regulations practiced to manage historic sites.
Most surveys and recovery projects in the USA are carried out by private
firms specialized in CRM, or by large engineering or environmental
impact companies.
CRM is responsible for 90% of archeology today in USA
Problems: Quality control in fieldwork, applying the results to important
research topics, publication of results, preservation of recovered
artifacts. All these depend of skill and integrity of companies.
o Mitigation Plans: Planning in order to avoid damaging archaeological record that
cannot be protected by avoidance. Rescue archaeology is applied when it is
necessary to damage archaeological record.
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Description
Archeology Notes Destruction of the Past Main Agencies of Destruction 1) Construction of roads, quarries, dams, etc. o Easily recognizable. 2) Agricultural intensification. o E.g.: Forest plantations now cover what was open land, and tree roots are destroying archaeological sites. 3) Conflict (War) o Destruction can be caused by two nations in conflict either deliberately or accidentally. Minor: - Tourism - Looting The Response: Survey, Conservation, and Mitigation - Development of public archaeology: the acceptance that public and government have a responsibility to avoid unnecessary destruction of heritage. 1) Survey o Before major developments are undertaken (constructions), there must be a survey or assessment of the likely effects of the development upon possible archaeological remains. o Done in order to locate unknown archaeological sites 2) Conservation and Mitigation o CRM (Cultural Resource Management)/ Applied Archaeology: Set of laws and regulations practiced to manage historic sites.  Most surveys and recovery projects in the USA are carried out by private
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