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Lecture 4

BIOL 1001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Glossary Of Riemannian And Metric Geometry, Ununseptium, University Of ManchesterPremium


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1001
Professor
Gregory S.Smutzer
Lecture
4

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BIOL 1001 - Lecture 4 - Biology of Living Things
Terms Used in Chemistry
Major elements used in earth’s crust include oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, and
calcium
Element: fundamental form of matter that has mass and takes up space
92 naturally occurring elements
All matter consists of elements
Atom: smallest unit that has the properties of a given element
Molecules: units of matter in which chemical bonding holds together two or more
atoms of the same or different elements
example: water is a molecule and oxygen O2 is a molecule
Compounds: composed of two or more different elements
example: water is a compound, oxygen is not
Major Elements
Major elements in humans
Oxygen: 65%
Carbon: 18%
Hydrogen: 10% (most common element in universe)
Nitrogen: 3%
Calcium: 2%
Phosphorus: 1.1%
trace elements include potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, and iodine
Elements
fundamental forms of matter
can’t be broken apart by normal means
92 occur naturally on Earth
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Most of human body = oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
2010: Element 117 discovered
14 msec.
known as Ununseptium and changed to Tennessine
co-discover at Vanderbilt U
Upsidasium (non gravity metal) discovered by Dewlap D Moose: not an element
found on Mount Flatten in Southwest USA
What are Atoms?
smallest particles that retain properties of an element
made up of subatomic particles
Protons (+)
carry single positive charge and a mass of one
Electrons (-)
carry single negative charge and have essentially no mass (no weight)
Neutrons (no charge)
carry neutral charge and a mass of one
Almost all atoms (hydrogen excluded) are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Each orbital an only hold 2 electrons
One or more orbitals make up a shell of electrons
Electrons only exist in certain levels like steps
electrons are very specific and cannot be between orbits
ex. Lithium atom has three electrons
Mass Number (Atomic Weight)
Stannum
Latin for “tin"
Weight of an atom = the nucleus
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