CHEM 1032 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Colligative Properties, Osmosis, Sodium Chloride

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Boiling Point Elevation; Osmosis; van’t Hoff Factor
Osmotic Pressure (): the pressure required to stop the flow
o = MRT
M = molarity (moles/L)
R = constant 0.08206 (L x atm/mol x K)
T = temperature (Kelvin)
Colligative Properties with Electrolytes:
o Electrolytes: when they dissolve in water, the produce ions
o Colligative properties are dependent on the number of particles
o Nonelectrolytes: concentration of particles = concentration of nonelectrolyte in
solution
o Electrolyte: concentration of particles = (number of ions)(electrolyte concentration)
o Examples:
Nonelectrolyte:
0.10 mole of sucrose = 0.10 mole particles of sucrose
Electrolyte:
0.10 mole Na+ + 0.10 mole Cl- = 0.20 mole particles
van’t Hoff Factor:
o i = (moles of the particles in the solution)/(the moles of the formula units dissolved)
o ((from example above))
0.20 mole particles/0.10 mole NaCl = 2
o actual van’t Hoff factor is slightly lower than calculated van’t hoff factor
ion pairing occurs in solution
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