IB 3101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Marketing Mix, Price Discrimination, Product Type

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Published on 17 May 2017
Week 13 Chapter 16 Global Marketing and R&D
Marketing Mix
Global standardization not possible:
Cultural differences
Economic differences
Trade barriers
Differences in product and technical standards
Market Segmentation
Identifying distinct groups of consumers whose purchasing behavior differs
from others in important ways
Two issues:
1. Differences between countries in the structure of market segments
2. Segments that transcend national borders
Product Attributes
Products sell well when their attributes match consumer needs
Consumer needs depend on:
1. Culture
2. Level of economic development
3. Product and technical standards
Differences in Distribution Systems
1. Retail concentration
a. In some countries the retail system is very concentrated, while in
other countries it is fragmented
b. In a concentrated system, a few retailers supply most of the market
c. In a fragmented system there are many retailers, no one of which has
a major share of the market
2. Channel length
a. Channel length refers to the number of intermediaries between the
producer and the consumer
b. When the producer sells directly to the consumer, the channel is very
c. When the producer sells through an import agent, a wholesaler, and a
retailer, a long channel exists
d. Fragmented retail systems tend to have longer channels
3. Channel exclusivity
a. An exclusive distribution channel is one that is difficult for outsiders
to access
4. Channel quality
a. Channel quality refers to the expertise, competencies, and skills of
established retailers in a nation, and their ability to sell and support
the products of international businesses
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