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[COMPLETE] KINS 1224 Lecture Notes Pt. 2/2 4.0 GPA Student

13 Pages

Course Code
KINS 1224

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I. Circulatory System: The Heart a. Introduction i. Circulatory System a. Heart, blood vessels, blood i. Transportation ii. Protection iii. Regulation ii. Cardiovascular System a. Heart and blood vessels i. Transportation of blood II. Cardiovascular System a. Pulmonary circuit i. Right side of heart ii. To lungs for gas exchange b. Systematic circuit i. Left side of heart ii. To all organs of body c. Heart anatomy i. Location a. Thoracic cavity i. Mediastinum ii. Size and Weight a. 4 in wide, 5 in long, 6 in thick i. Long- base to apex b. Less than 1 lb. d. Pericardium i. Parietal pericardium a. Fibrous layer b. Serous layer ii. Visceral pericardium a. Epicardium iii. Pericardial cavity a. Pericardial fluid iv. Functions a. Lubrication b. Reduce friction c. Protection d. Expansion of heart e. Prevents excessive expansion e. Layers of heart wall i. Epicardium a. Coronary blood vessels ii. Myocardium a. Cardiac muscle b. Thickest layer i. Left vs. right iii. Endocardium a. Covers valves b. Continuous with blood vessels f. Myocardium i. Cardiac muscle tissue a. Spiral or circular bundles b. Link all parts of the heart together ii. Fibrous skeleton a. CT fibers b. Functions: i. Structural support ii. Anchors cardiac muscle fibers iii. Non-conductor of electricity i. Limits the spread of Aps g. Cardiac Muscle Tissue i. Nucleus a. Usually single/ central ii. Mitochondria a. 25% of volume of cell iii. Myofibrils a. Sarcomeres i. Similar to skeletal muscle iv. Sarcoplasmic reticulum a. Less developed b. No terminal cisternae c. Calcium from ECF v. Transverse tubules a. Larger vi. Intercalated discs a. Interdigitating folds b. Mechanical junction i. Desmosomes ii. Fascia adherens c. Electrical junction i. Gap function ii. “Functional syncytium” h. Cardiac muscle metabolism i. Aerobic metabolism a. Vulnerable to oxygen deficiency b. Not prone to fatigue ii. Adaptable to organic fuels a. At rest i. 60% FA’s. 35% glucose, 5% other fuels b. Can change to metabolic pathways i. Even use lactic acid i. Cardiac conduction System i. Autorhythmic cells a. Modified cardiac muscle cells i. 1% of total b. Function independently i. Influenced by ANS/ hormones c. Functions: i. “Pacemakers” ii. Conduction pathway ii. Depolarization rates a. SA node: 70-80 times per min b. AV node: 40-50 times per min c. AV bundle and Purkinje fibers: 20-40 times per min iii. Pacemaker physiology of SA node a. Have unstable RMP i. Pacemaker potentials b. Events: i. Reduced K+ permeability ii. Slow Na+ inflow iii. Fast Ca channels iv. Depolarization v. Fast K+ outflow iv. Conduction to Myocardium a. Cardiac conduction system i. Stimulus to initiate action potential b. “All or None” i. Applies to whole organ c. Atria and ventricles not electrically connected i. Functional syncytium d. Purkinje Fibers i. Fastest, supply papillary muscles v. Electrical Behavior of Myocardium a. Individual contractile muscle i. Resting membrane potential is -90mv ii. Action potential of Ventricular Myocyte: vi. Ventricular Myocyte Action Potential a. Rapid Depolarization i. Na+ inflow b. Plateau Phase i. Ca+ inflow c. Repolarization i. K+ outflow ii. Ca+ outflow d. Absolute Refractory i. Longer than skeletal III. Cardiac Cycle overview a. Controlled by pressure changes i. Movement of blood ii. Operation of valves iii. Pressure created by contraction iv. Pressure influenced by volume b. Direction of flow is always high to low c. Right heart- 1/5 pressure of left heart but volume of blood pumped is equal d. Cycle i. Complete cycle of contraction and relaxation a. Electrical activity b. Pressure changes c. Volume changes d. Heart sounds ii. Major events a. Quiescent period b. Atrial systole c. Isovolumetric contraction d. Ventricular systole e. Isovolumetric relaxation e. Quiescent period i. Diastole ii. Phases: a. Rapid ventricular filling iii. Diastasis a. Reduced filling iv. AV Valves open v. SA node depolarizes f. Atrial systole i. Atrial contract a. Blood into ventricles ii. Ventricular volume increases a. End- diastolic volume (EDV) iii. Atria begin repolarization iv. Ventricles begin depolarization g. Isovolumetric contraction i. Atria complete repolarization ii. Ventricles complete depolarization a. QRS complex iii. Ventricles contraction begins a. Pressure increases b. No volume change c. AV valves close i. First heart sound ii. T
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