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[COMPLETE] KINS 1224 Lecture Notes Pt. 1/2 4.0 GPA Student

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KINS 1224
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I. Overview of Endocrine system a. Integration and Coordination i. Accomplished by Nervous and Endocrine ii. Referred to as Neuroendocrine System iii. Work as complements iv. Maintain homeostasis b. Negative Feedback Mechanisms i. Stimulation increases secretion ii. Secretion increased blood concentration iii. Target organ affected iv. Hormone release inhibited c. Characteristics i. Endocrine 1. Neurosecretory cells 2. Secrete hormones into bloodstream 3. Stimulates response in target tissue/organ ii. Paracrine 1. “Local” hormones 2. Secrete into tissue fluids to nearby cells iii. Exocrine 1. Tubes or ducts iv. Autocrine 1. Affect itself d. Transportation of hormones i. Glands are highly vascularized ii. Hormones released into ECF via exocytosis iii. Travel in blood vessels 1. Transported to target organ e. Organs i. Pineal (brain) ii. Hypothalamus (brain) iii. Pituitary (brain) iv. Thyroid (Throat) v. Thymus (Chest) vi. Adrenal gland (Abdomen) vii. Pancreas (Abdomen) viii. Ovary/ Testis (Groin) II. Hypothalamus and Pituitary a. Closely integrated relationship i. Hypothalamus: major link between nervous and endocrine systems ii. Pituitary: “Master” endocrine gland; controlled by hormones b. Together, 16 different hormones aiding in regulation of growth, development, metabolism, and homeostasis c. Hypothalamic- hypophyseal tract i. Nerve tract connecting to posterior pituitary d. Hypophyseal portal system i. Vascular connection to anterior pituitary 1. Primary capillary plexus 2. Hypophyseal portal vein 3. Secondary capillary plexus e. Hypothalamus i. Derived from neural tissue ii. Part of diencephalon of cerebrum iii. Hormones produced 1. Paraventricular nucleus 2. Supraoptic nucleus iv. Median Eminence to Anterior Pituitary 1. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) 2. Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) 3. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) 4. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) 5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) 6. Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) 7. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) 8. Two secreted by posterior Pituitary: a. Oxytocin- Produced in paraventricular nucleus b. Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)- Produced in supraoptic nucleus f. Pituitary Gland i. Called “hypophysis” ii. Divided into anterior 1. Adenohypophysis 2. Derived from glandular epithelium iii. Divided into Posterior Pituitary 1. Neurohypophysis 2. Derived from neural tissue iv. Adenohypophysis 1. Five types of cells: a. Three produce tropic hormones: i. Corticotropes- ACTH ii. Thyrotropes- TSH iii. Gonadotropes- FSH,LH b. Two produce effects on non-endocrine tissues: i. Somatropes- GH ii. Lactotropes- PRL 2. Hormones a. FSH: Eggs and Sperm b. LH: Ovulation/testosterone c. TSH: Thyroid growth/hormone d. ACTH: Adrenal cortex e. PRL: Lactation f. GH: Tissue growth v. Posterior Pituitary Hormones 1. Oxytocin and ADH a. Neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus b. Move in vesicles c. Stored in axon terminals of Posterior pituitary d. Hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract 2. Nerve impulses from hypothalamus a. Release into ECF, then capillaries III. Thyroid a. Largest, only gland to store hormones in large quantity (3 or more months worth) b. Major metabolic hormone of body i. Affects virtually every cell (except adult brain, spleen, testes, uterus, thyroid gland) ii. Increases metabolic rate c. Hormones i. Follicular cell hormones 1. Formed from iodine and thyroglobin 2. Transported by thyroxin- binding globulin 3. T3- triiodothyronine (Most active) 4. T4- tetraiodothyronine or thyroxin ii. Calcitonin 1. Produced in parafollicular cells 2. Promotes deposition of Ca into bone matrix 3. Stimulates osteoblasts 4. Decreases blood Ca levels d. Parathyroid Gland i. Atleast 2 pairs ii. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1. Produced by chief cells 2. Helps raise Ca blood levels a. Promotes intestinal reabsorption b. Inhibits urinary excretion c. Neuron transmission, muscle contraction, clotting 3. Stimulates osteoblasts IV. Thymus Gland a. Large and conspicuous in children b. Diminishes through adulthood c. Regulate and activate T-lymphocytes i. Thymopoietin ii. Thymosin V. Adrenal Glands a. Structurally and functionally 2 glands i. Adrenal Cortex ii. Adrenal Medulla b. Major function help body cope with stress c. Adrenal Cortex hormones i. Mineralcorticods 1. Zona glomerulosa 2. Aldosterone- water and electrolyte balance ii. Glucocorticoids 1. Zona fasciculate 2. Cortisol- Aids in chronic stress iii. Gonadocorticoids 1. Zona reticularis 2. Androgens- Sex hormones d. Adrenal Medulla i. Cells- modified postganglionic neurons ii. Sympathetic innervation iii. Hormones prolong effects of sympathetic stimulation: 1. Epinephrine (80%) 2. Norepinephrine (20%) VI. Pancreas a. Exocrine (Acinar cells) i. Digestive function b. Endocrine i. 1-2% pancreatic cells ii. Islets of Langerhans 1. Alpha cells- Glucagon 2. Beta cells- Insulin 3. Delta cells- Somatostatin VII. Gonads a. Testes and Ovaries b. Produce sex hormones c. Estrogen and Progesterone by female d. Testosterone by male VIII. Pineal Glands a. Both nervous and endocrine functions b. Produces Melatonin i. Concentrations increase and decrease diurnally 1. Assumed role in physiological responses to li
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