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NSCI 1051 (6)

Study terms for Chapter 7 - Gross Neuroanatomy

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Temple University
Neuroscience - CLA
NSCI 1051

STUDY TERMS FOR CHAPTER 7 – GROSS NEUROANATOMY  What it does, where it is, what happens when it’s broke Cerebral cortex: • The layer of gray matter lying just under the surface of the cerebrum Frontal lobe • Complex problem solving • Posterior part of this lobe is the motor area Parietal lobe • Somatosensory area right behind central sulcus Temporal lobe Occipital lobe • Visual cortex is in the posterior part • Disorders here cause hallucinations • Destruction of whole lobe causes psychic darkness, blind and loses all concept of previous visual experience Lateral ventricles: • Paired structures that sprout like antlers from the third ventricle • Surrounded by the two cerebral hemispheres FROM ROSTRAL TO CAUDAL Forebrain Telencephalon: (or cerebrum) hemisphere seen from outside, initiates motor movement, pons then cerebellum to make it more precise Diencephalon: thalamus (dorsal), hypothalamus (ventral or below thalamus) Thalamus: • Major relay station, Interface between the cortex and the rest of the nervous system • Top of brain stem Hypothalamus: • Homeostasis (body temperature and hormones/endocrine system) • Fight, flight, feeding, fucking (hormones, hunger, fear reactions) Midbrain Mesencephalon: mid brain, reflexes • Tectum: behind tegmentum (dorsal to cerebral aqueduct) • Tegmentum: on top of pons (ventral to cerebral aqueduct) Hindbrain Metencephalon: • Cerebellum: fist shape at base of brain, responsible for precise, skilled motor movement (and balance/posture) • Pons: bridge connecting cerebellum to the rest of the brain, Ball like structure above medulla, 2 to last on brain stem Mylencephalon: medulla oblongata, connected to spinal cord, all thinking/planning for movement is sent through the medulla to spinal cord to reach the muscles, everything is sent through this from body to brain and vice versa *Brain stem is (Mes, Met, Mye) that forebrain sits on* Hippocampus: • Learning and memory • In the temporal lobe, region of the cerebral cortex • Lies adjacent and medial to olfactory cortex Basal ganglia: • Control of autonomic function (heart rate, breathing) • Collection of associated cell groups in the basal forebrain • Links the thalamus with the motor cortex Amygdala • Adjacent to hippocampus • Almond-shaped nucleus in the anterior temporal lobe • Processing emotions and fear-learning, responses to fear (fight or flight) MAJOR PATHWAYS  Corpus callosum: • Major band of white fibers that binds L&R hemispheres of the cerebrum Anterior commissure: • Links middle and inferior temporal gyri (connects temporal lobe) Arcuate fasciculus: • Fiber bundle connecting Wernicke’s area to Broca’s area Internal capsule: • A large collection of axons that connect the telencephalon with the diencephalon FUNCTIONAL DIVISIONS Primary visual cortex: • 17,18,19 • Retina  thalamus  visual cortex • In the Occipital lobe • Lesion will cause partial blindness Primary auditory cortex: • 41 & 42 • Under Sylvian fissure, on superior temporal gyrus, infront of Wernicke’s area (in the temporal lobe) • Lesion causes absence of sound perception • Lesion in Wernicke’s
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