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Lecture 6

PSY 2201 Lecture 6: Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

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PSY 2201
Paul Okami

Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Tuesday, March 21, 2017 2:11 PM Positive Symptoms: Something is there that shouldnt be there 1. Delusions: Irrational thoughts and beliefs, completely divorced from reality. (e.g., delusions of grandeur, delusions of persecution; ideas of reference) 1. Hallucinations: Sensory events in the absence of sensory stimulii.e., hearing things or seeing things that arent there. Negative Symptoms: Something is not there that should be there 1. Avolition (apathy): Unable to initiate even basic activity 2. Alogia: Unable to speak or responding to questions with very brief replies. 3. Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure 4. Flat affect (blunted affect): Lack of apparent emotional response in facial expressions. Disorganized Symptoms Disorganized Speech: *Illogical or incoherent *Tangentiality: Going off on an irrelevant ramble instead of addressing the question *Derailment: Jumping from topic to topic through loose associations Inappropriate Affect: *Laughing while discussing something sad or crying when discussing something joyful Disorganized Behavior: *Catatoniawildly agitated movements or holding a bizarre statue pose OTHER SCHIZ. SPECTRUM DISORDERS Schizophreniform Disorder: Brief (several months) experience of schizophrenia symptoms, then full recovery. Brief Psychotic Disorder: The same as schizophreniform disorder, but lasting less than one month. Schizoaffective Disorder: Symptoms of mood disorder in addition to schizophrenia. Delusional Disorder: Delusions only, no hallucinations, and few if any negative symptoms. HOW SCHIZ. DEVELOPS Premorbid stage: Mild symptoms in childhood, not specific to schizophrenia (premorbid stat Prodromal stage (generally during adolescence): Less severe, but still unusual symptoms. Onsetdeterioration: Fullblown symptomscourse may consist of temporary recovery or partial recovery, then relapse, repeated chronically (chronicresidual). GENETICS OF SCHIZ If you have a schizophrenic parent, you are 17 times more likely than others to be schizophrenic (17 compared to 1 in the general population). Heritability also exists for the spectrum itself, not just for any particular form or group of symptoms. The more severe a parents schizophrenia, the more likely the child is to develop it. Identical twins, reared together or apart, are at more than twice the risk for concordance as fraternal twins. Adopted children with schizophrenic genetic mothers are 22 times more likely to develop one of the spectrum disorders. Endophenotypes Any straightforward, measurable characteristic or symptom present in people who have a disorder but also present at a high rate in close genetic relatives who do not have the disorder. Endophenotypes are part of what is heritable about a disorder, but they are not the disorder itself. Pfactor any genotype that predisposes you to mental illness Neurodevelopmental factors Anything that affects the brain but is not genetic in origin (occurs after conception) Some hypothesized neurodevelopmental factors: Prenatal exposure to flu Prenatal expurse to rubella virus Unknown recently emerging virus Herpes virus T. gondii (found in cat feces) Psychopathology Page 1
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