HIST 2300 Lecture 5: New England

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New England: The City Upon a Hill
Plymouth Colony
English Puritans
o Puritans wanted to change the Church of England from the inside
o “Purify” the church
o Tried to settle in Holland first, viewed Dutch with suspension
o Received charter from King George I to settle in America
o Created Joint Stock Company
o Originally wanted to go to Virginia but went off course to Plymouth
Signing of the Mayflower Compact, 1620
o They are going to cooperate and obey laws that they create
o Self-erected society
o Openly declares allegiance to King James I of England
The First Thanksgiving
o Positive relationship with Natives and were able to negotiate first winter
o Wampanoag were their allies
o Tisquantum (Squanto)-Pataxet
o Thanksgiving happened after the first winter
o Abraham Lincoln turned Thanksgiving into national holiday
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Chartered the colony to try and get rid of Puritans
John Winthrop
o Leader of colony
The City Upon a Hill
o Delivered by Winthrop
o Colony example to the rest of the world as the ideal Christian utopia
o They have the favor of God
o First American Exceptionalism
o Reform movements influenced by American Exceptionalism (Manifest Destiny)
Calvinism
o John Calvin early Protestant reformers
o Radical beliefs
o Double Pre-Destination: the idea that before the foundation of the world, God
knew exactly who would be saved or damned, there’s nothing you can do about it
o The goal of the Puritan is to live an extremely godly lifestyle to be called a saint
Theocracy
o You had to be a saint to have any power in New England
o Society governed by religious ideals
o Political leaders are saints
o Church attendance absolutely necessary
o Puritans went to church every day, M-F 3 hours, Sat-Sun 8 hours
o Close-knit community, good for survival (borrowing, helping out), but not a lot of
privacy, people expected to call each other out on faults (nosey)
o Not interested in religious liberty, religious independence for themselves
Salem Witchcraft Trials
o February 1692- May 1693
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