BIOL 2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Serous Membrane, Mediastinum, Pelvic Cavity

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Published on 26 Jan 2017
School
TNTECH
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2010
Professor
CHAPTER 1
Anatomy
o The study of structure
Physiology
o The study of function
Distinct but interrelated
o Physiology depends on anatomy
o Anatomical structures are not meaningful without the physiological processes
o Leads to:
The Uity of For ad Futio
Ways to Study Anatomy
o By looking at it (inspection)
If no tool is needed to observe it, you’re oserig gross aatoy
Microscopic anatomy includes: histology (tissues), cytology (cells)
Observation of ultrastructure requires other techniques like electron
microscopy
o Physical Exam including:
Palpation (feeling)
Auscultation (listening)
Percussion (tapping and listening)
o Dissections of cadavers
o Use of comparative anatomy (comparing to another species)
o Medical imaging (radiology)
Ways to Study Physiology
o Understanding physiology requires knowing anatomy
o Experimental methods used to help us explain how and why something works
the way it does
Comparative physiology has been a useful tool for example
o Subdivisions of physiological study typically deal with specific body systems
Ex. Renal physiology, neurophysiology
o Tends to focus on events at cellular or molecular level
History of Physiological Study
o Came after anatomy was studied appropriately
o Physiology was not well studied until after the general scientific community
moved from inductive method of analyzing something to the scientific method
Inductive v. Deductive
o Inductive
Looks for a trend or pattern in the observations
Makes generalized statements about those patterns
Example: we describe the normal anatomy of the human by looking at
many different bodies
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o Deductive Reasoning
Begis ith a preise
A assuptio of truth or a ko fat
Deductions are made
Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning
o Begins with an observation of data that begs some sort of question
o Investigator then makes a hypothesis
Not a guess!
Must be consistent with what is already known
Must be falsifiable
A food investigator will then take care to design an experiment that will
test the hypothesis
Requires attention to many different factors that can affect the
outcomes of the experiment
o Variation (both natural and experimental), biases (of the
investigator and the subject), etc.
A good experiment will have:
o Adequate sample size
o Controls
Maybe placebo (controls psychosomatic effects) if experimental drug (for
control group) and treatment group receives experimental substance
Double blind study
o Data collected that is then statistically analyzed
With the correct statistical test
o data and conclusions must be shared and scrutinized by peers (peer review)
o not a foolproof system
http://retractionwatch.com/
The Language of Scientific Understanding
o Differences in colloquial and scientific meaning of some words has caused
confusion
Especially exacerbated y soial edia RTs, shares, reloggig
o Definitions for clarity
Scientific fact: information that can be independently verified by any
trained person
Laws of Nature: generalizations about the predictable ways in which
matter and energy behave (ex. gravity)
Result of inductive reasoning based on repeated, scientifically
confirmed observations
Scientific theory: explanatory statement or set of statements
derived from scientific facts, laws, and confirmed hypotheses
o Please Note: facts, laws, and confirmed hypotheses
Human Evolution
o Nobody came from a monkey
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