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Lecture 1

BIOL 2010 Lecture 1: LAB ONE CYTOLOGY


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 2010
Professor
Pirkle
Lecture
1

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LAB ONE
CELLULAR ANATOMY AND FUNCTION
The principle of structure and function: cellular function is related to the particular
organelles that are present within that cell
Cell organelles (know location and function)
o Microvillus: increase absorptive surface area; widespread sensory roles (hearing,
equilibrium, taste)
o Desmosome: cell to cell adhesion
o Centrioles: Form mitotic spindle during cell division; unpaired centrioles form
basal bodies of cilia and flagella
o Free ribosomes: interpret the genetic code and synthesize polypeptides
o Nucleus: genetic control of the cell; directs protein synthesis; shelters the DNA
o Nuclear envelope: encases the nucleus
o Mitochondrion: ATP synthesis
o Golgi complex: receives and modifies newly synthesized polypeptides,
synthesizes carbohydrates to glycoproteins; packages cell products into Golgi
vesicles
o Lysosome: contain enzymes for intracellular digestion, autophagy, programmed
cell death, and glucose mobilization
o Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Protein synthesis and manufacture of cellular
membranes
o Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Lipid synthesis, detoxification, calcium storage
o Plasma Membrane: prevents escape of cell contents: regulates exchange of
materials between cytoplasm and extracellular fluid: involved in intercellular
communication
Cell Growth and Reproduction
o IPMAT-C
o Interphase: growth for individual cell and prep for nuclear division
G1: growth and metabolic rolesmost metabolic activity
S (synthesis): DNA replication
G2: more brief... getting ready for mitosis
o M Phase: process of dividing cells2 phases
Mitosis: the division of the nucleus in order to provide both new
daughter cells with complete genomes
Prophase: chromosomes condense and nuclear envelope breaks
down. Spindle fibers grow from centrioles. Centrioles migrate to
opposite poles of the cell
Metaphase: chromosomes lie along midline of cell. Some spindle
fibers attach to kinetochores. Fibers of aster attach to plasma
membrane
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