BIOL 2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Cervical Vertebrae, Articular Processes, Lumbar Vertebrae

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Published on 9 Feb 2017
School
TNTECH
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2010
Professor
LAB 3
The Skeletal System: Axial
206 Bones on average in the human body
Function: support, protect, levers for movement, storage for inorganic salts and fats, the
site of blood cell and some hormone replacement
Axial Skeleton: bones that make up the skull, vertebral column
Skull
o 22 bones
o face and cranium
o most of the bones in the skull (with the exception of the mandible) are
connected to each other through immoveable joints called sutures
Hyoid Bone
o indirectly connected to skull by ligaments that attach to the styloid process of
the temporal bones and acts as a moveable base for the tongue
o It is the only bone in the body that does not directly articulate with another bone
Vertebral Column
o 26 Bones
o 7 Cervical Vertebrae and C1 and C2 (atlas and axis, respectively) are highly
speialized to allo ou to od ad tu ou head
o C7 lacks of the spinous process and is often called the vertebra prominens and
serves as an external marker a physician might use to find the junction between
the cervical vertebrae and the thoracic vertebrae
o 12 thoracic vertebrae make up the rest of the spine as you move inferiorly
o superior articular processes connect each vertebra with the vertebra superior to
it
o 5 lumbar vertebrae are in the next region of the spine. Lumbar veryebrae have
larger bodies than the other (indicative of their primary function of weight-
bearing)
o Two more bones complete the spinal column: the sacrum and the coccyx. Both
are formed from the fusion of vertebrae during development (5 and 4 vertebrae,
respectively).
The o is e sall ad is ofte efeed to as ou tail oe
o The spinous process is always posterior and the body anterior. The transverse
processes serve as attachment points for ligaments, ribs, and spinal muscles.
o The atlas and axis (C1 and C2) have special structures that accommodate their
special functions.
Example) rotation is possible at the atlantoaxial joint
Thoracic Cage
o Surrounds the lungs, heart, and largest blood vessels and is important for the
protection of these organs
o Attachment point for the shoulder girdle, upper limbs, and many muscles of the
neck, back, and chest
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Document Summary

206 bones on average in the human body. Function: support, protect, levers for movement, storage for inorganic salts and fats, the site of blood cell and some hormone replacement. Axial skeleton: bones that make up the skull, vertebral column. Skull: 22 bones face and cranium, most of the bones in the skull (with the exception of the mandible) are connected to each other through immoveable joints called sutures. Hyoid bone indirectly connected to skull by ligaments that attach to the styloid process of the temporal bones and acts as a moveable base for the tongue. It is the only bone in the body that does not directly articulate with another bone. Lumbar veryebrae have larger bodies than the other (indicative of their primary function of weight- bearing: two more bones complete the spinal column: the sacrum and the coccyx. Both are formed from the fusion of vertebrae during development (5 and 4 vertebrae, respectively).