BIOL 2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Fibroblast, Apocrine, White Adipose Tissue

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Published on 22 Feb 2017
BIOL 2010
Chapter 5 Histology
o The study of tissues
Tissues are a group of cells and their products working together for a
particular function
4 Types:
Primary Tissue Classes
o Differ in:
Types and function of their cells
Characteristics of the extracellular matrix
Relative amount of space occupied by cells in the matrix
o The composition of the matrix can vary but in general it’s made of:
Ground substance
Sometimes known as tissue fluid, ECF, or interstitial fluid
Contains all of the dissolved nutrients, gases, metabolic, wastes,
hormones etc. that can move in and out of the cell
Tissue Development
o Tissue development proceeds after fertilization once there are layers of cells
Called primary germ layers
o Gives rise to the mucus membranes of the digestive and
respiratory tracts; digestive glands
o Eventually turns into mesenchyme which contains
mesenchyme (major stem cell) which contains
mesenchymal cells
Mesenchymal cells differentiate into muscle cells
and connective tissue types
o Gives rise to the epidermis and the nervous system
Interpreting Histological Sections
o Different ways of cutting the same thing that show different images
o Smears and spreads aren’t even cuts!
o Longitudinal Section (up and down)
o Cross Section (left and right)
o Oblique Sections (diagonal)
Epithelial Tissue
o Sheets of cells that covers a body surface or lines body cavities
o Covers the insides and outsides of most organs
o Also makes up the glands of the body
o Overall functions:
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o Traits
Very thin extracellular matrix
Blood supply must come from underlying connective tissue
Cells near the blood supply exhibit high rate of mitosis
Allows for regeneration of cells
Tissues are polar with apical (towards the lumen) and basal (towards the
basement membrane) surface
The basement membrane is a mix of collagen, glycoproteins, and
other protein0carbohydrate complexes. Serves to:
o Anchor epithelium to underlying connective tissues
o Control the exchange of materials between epithelium and
underlying tissues
o Binds growth factors important to epithelium’s growth
o Naming Epithelia
With stratified epithelium, the shape is determined by the cells at the top if
there are different shapes
Connective Tissue
o Most abundant and widely distributed tissue type in the body
o Histologically highly variable
o Grouped together because
Tissues are dominated by extracellular matrix
Most connective tissues bind together organs in some way, form structural
framework of an organ, and support or protect organs (MOSTLY)
Shared origin (all come from mesenchymal stem cells)
o Connective tissues vary in their vascularity (very important to know)
From highly vascular like fat to almost completely avascular like cartilage
o Functions:
Binding of organs
Physical protection (fat)
Immune protection (white blood cells)
Movement (tendons and bones)
Storage (fat stores energy... bones store minerals)
Heat production (fat broken down to make heat)
Transport (blood moves stuff around)
o Classification of Connective Tissue Types
o Cells
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