BIOL 2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Guanine, Alternative Splicing, Ribosomal Rna

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Published on 22 Feb 2017
School
TNTECH
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2010
Professor
Chapter 4 Overview of Genetics and Cellular Function
The Human Genome
o Made of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Made of 4 nucleotide bases:
Adenine (A)
Thymine (T)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
o DNA’s function is assisted by RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Various kinds:
mRNA
tRNA
rRNA
Define a Gene
o Genes have been defined in different ways over the years
“One gene one (insert molecule type here)”
o For simplicity, we will define genes as a portion of DNA that encodes for a
molecule of RNA that will either become a protein or is the product itself
o Thanks to the Human Genome Project, we know that humans have 20K genes that
code for millions of proteins
All humans are 99.9% similar to each other
The Genetic Code
o The system that allows 4 nucleotides to code for millions of proteins
o DNA sequence is converted by mRNA to a series of triplet codons
The genetic code is redundant in that several codons translate into the
same amino acid
Going from DNA to Protein Sequence
o DNA to RNA = Transcription
Involves enzymes that unwind the DNA and then RNA polymerase that
makes an RNA sequence
In eukaryotes (like humans) DNA is first transmitted into a piece of pre-
mRNA
Alternative splicing may explain why one gene can be multiple
proteins
o Translation
Involves:
mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes
Proceeds through a process:
Initiation
Elongation
Termination
For proteins that will be secreted or packaged in some way, the ribosome
can dock to rough ER
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Document Summary

Chapter 4 overview of genetics and cellular function. The human genome: made of dna (deoxyribonucleic acid) Made of 4 nucleotide bases: dna"s function is assisted by rna (ribonucleic acid) Define a gene: genes have been defined in different ways over the years. All humans are 99. 9% similar to each other. The genetic code: the system that allows 4 nucleotides to code for millions of proteins, dna sequence is converted by mrna to a series of triplet codons. The genetic code is redundant in that several codons translate into the same amino acid. Going from dna to protein sequence: dna to rna = transcription. Involves enzymes that unwind the dna and then rna polymerase that makes an rna sequence. In eukaryotes (like humans) dna is first transmitted into a piece of pre- mrna. Alternative splicing may explain why one gene can be multiple proteins: translation.

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