BIOL 2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Multinucleate, Collagen, Osteocalcin

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Published on 22 Feb 2017
School
TNTECH
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2010
Professor
Chapter 7 Bone Tissue
The Skeletal System
o Bones
Complex, living organs (very vascular)
Made if: osseous tissue, blood, bone marrow, cartilage, adipose, nervous
tissue, fibrous connective tissue
Connective tissue is hardened and mineralized (calcified)
o Cartilages
o Ligaments
Connect bone to bone
o Tendons
Connects muscles to bone
Functions of the Skeleton
o Support
o Protection ribs, skull, etc. to protect organs
o Movement joints
o Electrolyte balance
Particularly calcium (Ca 2+) [bones mineralize calcium and store is so it
can be used later] and phosphate (PO4 2-) [released with calcium]
o Acid-base balance
Releases alkaline phosphate and carbonate salts to buffer the blood
o Blood formation Where blood cells are made (B cells are called that because
they are made in bone marrow)
Different Types of Bones
o Long bones
Longer than they are wide
Dominate the limbs
Act as rigid levels to allow many movements
o Excellent example of bones and we will use long bones as our example
General Anatomy of Long Bones
o Elongated shafts with two heads
Diaphysis (length of the bone/shaft) and proximal and distal epiphyses
(head of the bone)
o Exterior surface covered in periosteum (covering outside of the bone)
Two layers:
Fibrous
o Made mostly of collagen
Osteogenic
o Location of bone forming cells
o Articulating surfaces covered in hyaline cartilage
o Compact (dense) bone overlying spongy (cancellous) bone [spongy: cuts weight,
equally as strong as compact bones, stores blood cells/forms blood cells]
o Diaphysis is hollow enclosing the marrow or medullary cavity
Filled with yellow and red bones marrow in living bones
Lines with thin reticular layer called endosteum (interior covering)
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Document Summary

Made if: osseous tissue, blood, bone marrow, cartilage, adipose, nervous tissue, fibrous connective tissue. Connective tissue is hardened and mineralized (calcified: cartilages, ligaments. Functions of the skeleton: support, protection ribs, skull, etc. to protect organs, movement joints, electrolyte balance. Particularly calcium (ca 2+) [bones mineralize calcium and store is so it can be used later] and phosphate (po4 2-) [released with calcium: acid-base balance. Releases alkaline phosphate and carbonate salts to buffer the blood: blood formation where blood cells are made (b cells are called that because they are made in bone marrow) Different types of bones: long bones. Act as rigid levels to allow many movements: excellent example of bones and we will use long bones as our example. General anatomy of long bones: elongated shafts with two heads. Diaphysis (length of the bone/shaft) and proximal and distal epiphyses (head of the bone: exterior surface covered in periosteum (covering outside of the bone)

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