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Lecture 3

CHEM 1210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Noble Gas, Electron Configuration, Isoelectronicity

Course Code
CHEM 1210

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Basic idea of chemical bonding- atoms bond together to fill the valence shell
Ionic compounds- metal cations and anions
Conduct electricity when dissolved in water
Covalent compounds- made of nonmetals
Do not (or only weakly) conduct electricity
Ionic Bonding- transfer of electrons to form ions
Large electronegativity difference
When dissolved in water, ionic compounds separate into the ions and conduct electricity
Metal reacts with non-metal—electron rich metal loses its valence electrons and the
metal becomes a cation and the nonmetal becomes an anion
Naming Cations
If a cation has more than one charge, use roman numerals to show charge (low, middle portion
of periodic table)
NO alkali metals or stair step (Ag+, Zn2+, Al3+)
Fe2+= iron (II) ion= ferrous ion Fe3+=Iron (III) ion= ferric ion
Cu+= copper (I) ion= cuprous ion Cu2+= copper (II) ion= cupric ion
Naming Ionic Compounds
Name the cation, then the anion. The overall charge must give a NEUTRAL compound.
Don’t name the subscripts
Covalent Bonding
When nonmetals (including Hydrogen) bond together, they share electrons
Naming Binary (2 different kinds of atoms) covalent compounds
1) Name the less electronegative element first
2) Name more electronegative element with -ide
3) Use prefixes: mono-1, di-2, tri-3, tetra-4, penta-5
Drawing Lewis Dot Structure for Atoms
Lewis dot structures are a useful tool to help us:
1) Keep track of valence electrons (the dots)
2) Quickly make predictions about how different atoms will react to form compounds
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