CHEM 1210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Stoichiometry, Activation Energy

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Published on 11 Nov 2016
School
TNTECH
Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1210
Professor
Outline 7
Reactions, Rates, and Equilibrium
Chemical Reactions: reactants combine to form products
Balancing Equations
o Coefficients: Indicate the number of molecules required to balance the chemical
reaction
o A balanced equation has the same number of atoms (of each element) on each
side of the equation
o Example: 2H2 + 02 2H20 + heat
Reactants products
Stoichiometry: the study of mass relationships in chemical reactions
o % yield= actual experimental yield/theoretical calculated yield
Redox Reactions (Oxidation/Reduction)
o Oxidation (charge increases)
Gain of Oxygen
Loss of Hydrogen
Loss of electrons
o Reduction (charge decreases)
Loss of Oxygen
Gain of Hydrogen
Gain of Electrons
o REMEMBER: “LEO says GER”
Loss of Electrons Oxidation
Gain of Electrons Reduction
o An oxidizing agent is a substance that is reduced. It allows the other substance to
be oxidized
o A reducing agent is a substance that is oxidized. It allows the other substance to
be reduced.
5 Important Types of Redox Reactions
o combustion- burning in air (O2)
the products of complete combustion are CO2 and H2O
o Respiration- the process by which living organisms use O2 to oxidize carbon-
containing compounds to produce CO2, H2O, and energy
The importance of this reaction is not the CO2 that is produced, but the
energy!
o Rusting- the oxidation of iron to a mixture of iron oxides
o Bleaching- the oxidation of colored compounds to products which are colorless
o Batteries- electricity generated from a redox-reaction
Electricity is moving electrons/moving charges
Oxidizing Antiseptics
o Agents that kill bacteria by oxidation
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Document Summary

Chemical reactions: reactants combine to form products. Stoichiometry: the study of mass relationships in chemical reactions: % yield= actual experimental yield/theoretical calculated yield. Redox reactions (oxidation/reduction: oxidation (charge increases) Loss of electrons: reduction (charge decreases) Gain of electrons: remember: leo says ger . Gain of electrons reduction: an oxidizing agent is a substance that is reduced. It allows the other substance to be oxidized: a reducing agent is a substance that is oxidized. It allows the other substance to be reduced. Oxidizing antiseptics: agents that kill bacteria by oxidation. Hot or cold: a reaction that releases heat is called exothermic, a reaction that absorbs heat is called endothermic. Catalysts are not used up in a reaction: the activation energy (ea) is simply the minimum energy required for the reaction to occur. To burn paper, a spark provides this activation energy: chemical equlibrium. Many actions are reversible and eventually reach equilliubruim.