MUS 1030 Lecture 1: Music Appreciation Musical Elements (Ch. 1) Notes

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Published on 21 Sep 2016
School
TNTECH
Department
Music
Course
MUS 1030
Professor
Chapter 1.1 -- Rhythm (8/24/16)
Music – the organization of sound over time
Rhythm – making a pattern out of that organized sound from the carious long and short durations of
individual sounds (i.e. different people’s footsteps, clocks)
oSilence can help define this pattern and in music silence is called a rest
Beat – the regularly recurring pulse in music
oIt measures the duration of the sounds within a rhythm
Notation – the process of writing music down so it can be performed
oThe duration is indicated with different shapes for the different notes and rests
oWhole note/rest – 4 beats
oHalf note/rest – 2 beats
oQuarter note/rest – 1 beat
oEighth note/rest – ½ beat
oSixteenth note/rest – ¼ beat
o***A dotted note adds half of the note’s original value
Tempo – the speed of the beat in a piece of music
oIndicated by:
Metronome markings, which tell you the number of the beats per minute
Tempo terms – Italian originally
oMetronome -- an electronic or mechanical means for generating a regular beat at any tempo
desired
Tempo Terms:
oPresto – a very past tempo
oVivace – a lively brisk tempo
oAllegro – a fast tempo
oModerato – a moderate tempo
oAndante – a moderate walking speed
oAdagio – a slow and stately tempo
oLargo – a very slow and solemn tempo
oAccelerando – a gradual speeding up of the tempo
oRitardando – a gradual slowing of the tempo
Meter – the organization of beats, and also rhythm, into regularly recurring patterns
oDuple meter – beats grouped by two (Strong/weak) (i.e. Twinkle Twinkle, Jingle Bells)
oTriple meter – beats grouped by three (Strong/weak/weak) (i.e. Happy Birthday)
oQuadruple meter – beats grouped by four (Strong/weak/s/w) (i.e. many rock songs)
Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds – switches between triple and quadruple meter
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oBarlines indicate the grouping od beats and divide the music into equal parts called measures
oMeter is indicated by a time signature
2/4, 3/4, and 4/4
oIn most time signatures, the top number indicates the number of beats in each measure and
the bottom number indicates what type of note gets one beat
Mm (metronome marking) = beats per minute
Accent – a note is played with extra emphasis or energy and this is caused by playing the accented
note louder, higher, or longer than the surrounding notes
Syncopation – a special type of accent which deliberately confuses the meter by accenting a weak
beat or a part of the beat that doesn’t normally get accented (common in jazz, pop, and rock music)
oBack beat (quadruple -- 1/3 are strong and 2/4 are accented)
oi.e. of syncopation: Chameleon
Chapter 1.2 -- Melody (8/26/16)
Pitch – the relative highness or lowness of a sound
To label pitches, only the first 7 letters of the alphabet are used and then repeated
oABCDEFG (220), ABCDEFG (440), ABCDEFG (880)
Staff – 5 lines and 4 spaces. The notation symbol is placed on, above, or below the staff with a clef to
indicate the specific pitches
Clef – indicates what notes the lines and spaces represent
oTreble Clef – for higher pitches (nickname: G clef)
oBass Clef – for lower pitches (nickname: F clef)
oGrand Staff – both clefs together, piano music
Intervals – the aural and visual distance between two pitches
oOctave – the interval between two pitches that have frequencies in a 2:1 ratio. They sound
similar because the frequency of the higher pitch is twice that of the lower pitch.
AbcdefgAbcdefg
220 440
oHalf Step – the smallest interval possible between any two pitches in traditional Western
music. Immediately adjacent keys on the piano are a half step apart.
oWhole Step – equal to two half steps
Sharp (#) next to a note or pitch indicates that the original has been raised or is higher by one half
step
Flat (b) next to a note or pitch indicates that the original has been lowered by one half step
Scale – a sequence of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order and different kinds are
defined by the pattern of intervals between the successive pitches
oExamples:
Major scale – Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do
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Document Summary

Music the organization of sound over time. Rhythm making a pattern out of that organized sound from the carious long and short durations of individual sounds (i. e. different people"s footsteps, clocks) o. Silence can help define this pattern and in music silence is called a rest. Beat the regularly recurring pulse in music o. It measures the duration of the sounds within a rhythm. ***a dotted note adds half of the note"s original value o. Tempo the speed of the beat in a piece of music o. Metronome markings, which tell you the number of the beats per minute. Tempo terms italian originally: metronome -- an electronic or mechanical means for generating a regular beat at any tempo desired. Lucy in the sky with diamonds switches between triple and quadruple meter: barlines indicate the grouping od beats and divide the music into equal parts called measures, meter is indicated by a time signature.

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