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Lecture 9

PSY 2210 Lecture 9: Chapter 9 - Cognitive and Socioemotional Development

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Troy University
Psychology (PSY)
PSY 2210
Parks- Orendorff

Wednesday, November 2, 2016 Chapter 9: Cognitive and Socio-emotional Development Adolescence: Setting the Context Term “adolescence” first described by G. Stanley Hall in 1904 Stage of life defined as “storm and stress” Intense moodiness, emotional sensitivity, and risk-taking tendencies Became a distinct stage of life in twentieth century when going to high school was routine History of Adolescence: Approximately 100 years ago, most children left school after sixth and seventh grade to find jobs Great Depression limited jobs leaving young people with no direction Roosevelt administration implemented a program to encourage young people to attend school; program was a success By 1939, 75% of all U.S. teens were attending high school Stage Characteristics of Adolescence Developed: Due to increased high school attendance, intellectual skills of adolescences increased Caused gap with mostly less-educated, immigrant parents Adolescents began spending less time with parents and more time as a group With recognition of teens as a lucrative market, business began targeting the group, thus helping to develop the adolescent culture Music, dress, language affected The 1960s and 70s led to more bonded baby This transformed views of marriage, gender roles, and basic ways of life The Mysterious Teenage Mind: Three classic theories to help understand teenage thinking 1 Wednesday, November 2, 2016 (1) Piaget’s Formal Operation Stage: Means the ability to: think hypothetically and scientifically Debate no matter what personal beliefs are Attempt to articulate personal wishes strongly! Not all adolescents reach the formal operations stage It is not universal but occurs mainly in Western cultures (2) Kolhberg’s Stages of Moral Judgement: Pre-conventional level (no internal moral sense) Responses focused on personal punishments and rewards Conventional level (most adults are here) Responses focused on obeying society’s rules and norms Post-conventional level (rarely achieved at any age) Responses focus on inner moral guidelines apart from society Kolhberg’s famous problem: The Heinz Dilemma: A Women is near death from cancer. One drug might save her. The druggiest was charging… ten times what the drug cost him to make. The….husband Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together had of what it cost. He asked… druggist to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said NO! Heinz broke into the man’s store to steal the drug…Should he have that ? why? Pre-conventional response - “Heinz should not take the drug because he will be punished and have to go to jail” Conventional response - “Although human life is important, Heinz must follow the rules” Post-conventional response - “Heinz did the right thing because nothing is more important than life” Concerns about Kolhberg’s theory: Kolhberg’s theory was severely criticized 2 Wednesday, November 2, 2016 Other developments found that intrinsic sense of fairness begins at a young age Carol Gilligan, a 20th century feminist psychologist, argued that Kolhberg’s theory was male-centered (3) Elkind’s Adolescent Egocentrism: Developed from Piaget’s formal operations Attempt to help make sense of teen’s emotional states Adolescents become aware of the flaws of others Thus becoming obsessed with what others think about their own personal flaws Adolescent Egocentrism - defining characteristics: Think their own actions are the center of everyone else’s thoughts Are hypersensitive to what others think Believe they are unique in the world Adolescent Egocentrism - Two facets: Imaginary Audience - teens feel as if they are “on stage” Everyone is looking at me and judging me Personal Fable - teens feels as if they are unique and special nothing can hurt me this may lead to risky behavior, particularly in males Three Aspects of “Storm and Stress” 1. Are adolescents are more socially sensitive? Yes! Research indicates that in emotionally charges situations, teens become more vulnerable to negative peer pressure There is a tendency for immediate gratification over future rewards 2. Are adolescents risk takers? Yes!
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