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Lecture 21

BIOL 190 Lecture 21: Ecology

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BIOL 190
Angela Cox

Ecology- a sub discipline of biology defined as the study of the interactions between organisms and their environments ● Individuals- individual organisms ● Populations- groups of individual organisms that interbreed with each other ○ same species ● Communities-populations of different species that interact with each other within a locale ○ different species ● Ecosystems- All living organisms, as well as non-living elements that interact in a particular area ○ + abiotic (non living) Levels of Organization that Concern Ecology 1. Individual **** 2. Population **** 3. Community 4. Ecosystem 5. Biosphere **** Important for our discussion of evolution ● Individual- one living organism ● Population- collection of individuals of the same species that live in a defined area at the same time ● Species- a group of individuals that can *successfully breed with one another ○ *Viable, fertile offspring Evolution of New Species ● Species- a group of populations whose members have the ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring ● Mutations can accumulate in isolated populations ○ IF- they can no longer successfully interbreed ○ THEN- now two different species Prezygotic barriers ● Temporal isolation- short time ○ (skunks that one breeds in spring one in fall- they would never attempt to make an offspring since they do not breed at same time) ● Habitat isolation- depending where they live
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