GEOG 102 Lecture 1: geog intro chapter

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Intro Chapter
A World of Maps
Geography is the science that studies the relationship and interdependencies between
natural systems, geographic areas, society, and cultural activities over space
Mental Maps
The Map Revolution
Cartography- the making of maps
o Remote sensing- scanner and cameras on satellites send information to
computers on earth
o Geographic information system (GIS)- programs allow presentation and
analysis of spatial data
Relationships between human societies and natural (physical) environment
o Humans transforming natural surroundings
o Humans dependent on natural environment and behavior is a product of that
Intersection of social and natural sciences and integrated perspectives from both
o Natural, environment, physical hard sciences
o Human, social, cultural soft sciences
The Cultural Landscape
o We can’t live without the planet and the planet modifies us
Spatial Patterns
Geographic space = the distance between places
Knowledge of location & distribution of significant features of Earth’s surface
Temporal (historical) perspective
5 Themes of Geography
o Location
o Region
o Place
o Movement
o Human-environment
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Intro Chapter
scale = relationship between distance on map and distance on ground expressed as ratio
o 1: 103,000,000 is a small-scale map compared to 1: 1,000,000 because it covers more
a small scaled map shows a larger area and a large scaled map shows a smaller area in
more detail
Geographic Realms global regions possessing particular combinations of environmental,
cultural, and other organizational properties
o physical and human
o functional - interaction of human societies and natural environments
o historical - interaction over time
o regional concept - system of spatial classification of earth using some specific criteria
o region - an area on earth that is classified together by making spatial generalizations
Criteria for Regions
o area - space occupied on earth’s surface
o boundaries - natures sharp divisions or other not-so-sharp criteria
o locations - regions name may give a clue
o absolute location - latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates
o relative location - location with reference to other regions
o homogeneity - sameness
o formal regions - display measurable and visible homogeneity
o regions as systems - functional integration (the way they work)
o functional region - forged by a structured system of interaction with a core and
o often urban-centered
Regions Within Realms
o all human regions are interconnected
o tension between Globalization & Local Diversity
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