GEOG 102 Lecture 4: geog chapter 3

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Chapter Three
South America
Major Geographic Features
o Andes mountains the west
o Amazon Basin in north
o Brazil largest and most populous state
o Population concentrated along periphery
o Interior sparsely populated
o Improving economic integration
o Regional economic contrasts and disparities
o Cultural pluralism prevails
o Rapid urbanization
o Abundant natural resources
o Dependent upon market demand for raw materials
o Lake Titicaca highest navigable lake on Earth
Physical Geography
Myriad Climates and Habitats
o Elongated realm north to south
o Substantial variation in relief west to east
o Enormous range of climate and vegetation
o Natural diversity contributes to considerable climate differences
o Altiplanos high-altitude valleys of the Andes Mountains
o Atacama Desert among the driest places on Earth
o Amazon rainforest one of the wettest
o Andes highest peaks outside Himalayas in Asia
Historical Geography
The Inca State
o Altiplano society centered at Cuzco
o Expert builders, farmers, herders, manufactures, and scholars
o Extensive empire stretching from Colombia to Chile
o Unified by network of roads and bridges
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Chapter Three
o Rigid class structure and highly centralized society
o Easily destroyed by small army of Spanish “Conquistadors” in 1530s
o Machu Picchu ruins in Andes
The Iberian Invaders
o Cristobol Colon 1492 Caribbean
o 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas Pope split the New World between Spain and
Portugal
o Ponce de Leon 1513 Florida
o Hernan Cortez 1519 Mexico
o Francisco Pizarro 1531 Panama to Peru, by 1533 Inca Empire destroyed
Discovery of tin
o Pedro Alvares Cabral 1500 Portuguese on east coast
Age of Revolution: New Political Geographies
Age of Colonization mid 1500s early 1800s
Tupac Amaru and Inca rebellion 1780
Wars of Independence 3 major centers (1810-1830)
1. Mexico and Central America initially formed empire but Central
American republics later seceded
2. Northern South America Simon Bolivar led Colombia, Venezuela,
Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia to independence
3. Southern South America Jose de San Martin led Argentina and
Chile to independence
Portuguese South America
Brazil achieves violence-free independence in 1822
The Cultural Mosaic
Population then and now
“Pre-Colombian” population
- Amerindian societies inhabited Andes highlands, Amazon Basin, and harsh
environments of Tierra del Fuego
Contemporary population
- 90% of Amerindians eradicated by European warfare and disease
- European settlers strayed near the coast
Andean settlements and Inca legacy Quechua culture and language
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