GEOG 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Maritime Southeast Asia, Tibetan Plateau, Overseas Chinese

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Chapter Ten
Southeast Asia
Major Geographic Qualities
Extends from peninsular mainland to offshore archipelagos
High relief, volcanic activity and earthquakes, and tropical climates
Majority of population in Indonesia and Philippines
Importance of Mekong River source in China and borders or crosses 5 SE Asian
states
Singapore leading world city in SE Asia
o Port in Singapore is the world’s 2nd largest shipping container port
A Geographic Overview
Peninsulas and islands
Bounded by India and China
Influence of Arabs and Arab commerce
European colonization and imperialism
Buffer Zone
between powerful adversaries
Shatter Belt
fractured politically, culturally, physically, and economically
Archipelago (island chain)
Indonesia SE Asia’s giant
o Territory and population
Mainland SE Asia … Indochina and the west
o Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar
Insular SE Asia
o Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Brunei
The Pacific Ring of Fire
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
o caused by earthquake off western Indonesia, killed more than 230,000
volcanic eruptions on islands
high relief dominates on mainland and islands
Physical Geography
Deforestation and Palm Oil Plantations
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Chapter Ten
palm oil used worldwide in processed foods and other products
Malaysia and Indonesia produce 90% of world’s palm oil
Relative Location and Biodiversity
Stepping stone from Asia to Australia
The Spice Trade attracted outsiders from India, China, and Europe
Four Major Rivers
1. Mekong
2. Red
3. Irrawaddy
4. Chao Phraya
Important for water, agriculture, and transportation
Population clustered at river deltas
The Mighty Mekong
Source in China’s Tibetan Plateau
Borders 5 countries
Supports rice farmers and fishermen
Transportation route
Mekong Delta one of SE Asia’s most densely populated areas
Political Geography
State Territorial Configurations
5 major categories
1. Compact round or rectangular
2. Protruded compact territory with extended peninsula
3. Elongated length at least six times longer than width; cultural and/or
environmental transitions
4. Fragmented 2 or more territorial units separated by foreign territory or
substantial body of water
5. Perforated one state completely surrounded by the territory of another
Population Geography
The Ethnic Mosaic
Peoples come from a common stock
Mainland ethnic groups as nation states
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Chapter Ten
o Burman Myanmar
o Thai Thailand
o Khmer Cambodia and Laos
o Vietnamese Vietnam
Island nations
o Indonesians, Filipinos, & Malays collectively known as Indonesians
The Rohingya Refugee Crisis
Muslim minority of Myanmar
2013 violence perpetrated by Buddhists
never accepted into Myanmar’s society
denied citizenship
subjected to discrimination and acts of violence
The Chinese
Largest immigrant minority
Long history of migration from China
Overseas Chinese urban concentrations
Often control commerce in adopted homes
Tensions between local ethnic majorities and Chinese minorities
Religions of Southeast Asia
Hinduism and Buddhism from South Asia
Islam from Southwest Asia
Buddhism Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia
Islam Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Cambodia
o Originally a Hindu temple, later adopted by Buddhists
Vietnam
o Blending Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism
The Imprint of Colonialism
Europeans arrived to a political fragmented realm
Indochina French name for region
o Indo refers to influence from South Asia … Indus River region
o China signifies role of Chinese
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