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Lecture 12

HLTH 101 Lecture 12: ch 12 pt 3

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Towson University
Health Science
HLTH 101
Krish Vaidya

● Without treatment cancer cells continue to grow replacing healthy cells ● Cancer cells may also metastasize or spread to other parts of the body via blood stream or lymphatic system ● Early detection and treatment is the key to survival Cancer Risk Factors ● Heredity- first degree- mother, sister, or daughter (breast cancer) same way father/ mother for lung cancer ● Racial and ethnic groups ● Obesity ● Overexposure to sun ● Infectious agents- HPV- connection to cervical cancer and helicobacter pylori with stomach cancer and in certain leukemia and lymphomas Types of cancer ● Cancers are classified according to the type of cell and the organ in which they originate ● CARCINOMA- starts in epithelium, the layers of cells that over the body’s surface or the internal organs and glands ● SARCOMA- forms in the supporting, or connective, tissues of the body, bones, muscles, blood vessels ● LEUKEMIA- begins in blood forming tissues, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen ● LYMPHOMA- arises in the cells of lymph system, the network that filters the impurities ● Lung cancer mainly result of lifestyle choices. Smoking tobacco and also in some cases exposure to asbestos. Both the causes are preventable or controllable Skin Cancer ● Sunlight (ultraviolet) any wave length that penetrates deep in the skin cause skin cancer ● Tanning salons and sun lamps also increase the risk of skin cancer because they produce ultraviolet radiation. Often skin damage is invisible to the naked eye but shows up under special diagnostic lights ○ Indoor tanning is not safe and causes sunburn, infection, eye damage, and increase risk of skin cancer ● Risk factors ○ Fair skin, light eyes or fair hair ○ A tendency to develop freckles and to burn inside of tan ○ A history of childhood sunburn or intermittent, intense sun exposure ○ A personal or family history of melanoma ○ Detection- change in existing mole, or development of a new and changing pigmented mole. An increase in height. Itching in a new or long existing mole should not be ignored ○ Malignant melanoma is deadliest type of skin cancer. Early detection with surgery alone can help cure. Five year survival is only 14% Breast cancer ● Risk factors ○ Age ○ Family history. First degree relative- mother, sister and daughter and if the relative developed breast cancer before menopause, the cancer more likely to be hereditary ○ Long menstrual history- more menstrual cycles a women has, longer her exposure to estrogen, a hormone known to increase breast cancer. Childless women who menstruate continuously for several decades are also at greater risk ○ Age at birth of first child. First child in forties, precancerous cells may flourish with high hormone levels of pregnancy ○ Breast biopsies ○ Race and ethnicity
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