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Lecture 5

PSYC 465 Lecture 5: PSYC 361 Lecture 5

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PSYC 465

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PSYC 361 Lecture 5 Abnormal Psychology Mood Disorders: Depressive, Bipolar, and Related Disorders • What is a Mood Disorder? o What is “Mood”? ▪ A mood is a relatively long lasting, affective state ▪ How do moods differ from emotions? • Less specific to an event and longer lasting o Mood disorders ▪ Disturbance in mood is predominant feature ▪ Mood is distorted or inappropriate to circumstances o Can is unipolar (i.e., depression) or bipolar ▪ Determined by what mood episodes are present • Depressive Disorders o Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) o Persistent Depressive Disorder (“dysthymia”) o Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) o Unspecified Depressive Disorder • Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) o Major Depressive Episode ▪ At least two weeks of : depressed mood or anhedonia (loss of pleasure), plus 5 additional sx’s : • Cognitive sx’s can include : worthlessness/guilt, hopelessness, concentration problems, thoughts of death/suicide • Physical sx’s can include : weight loss/gain, sleeping problems, agitation/retardation (i.e., speeding up or slowing down), and fatigue ▪ Sx’s must cause distress or impairment ▪ Suicide risk • In one study, 89% of people who successfully committed suicide had experienced a depressive episode at least once within the past month • High mortality rate because of suicide ▪ One of more episodes = MDD ▪ Two or more episodes = MDD recurrent o What does it look like? ▪ Clinical picture • Negativistic thinking - coined by Aaron Beck o Expect failure and disappointment o Focus on past failures (omit or discount successes) • Social isolation o Opt out because they don’t think they’ll have fun ▪ Or because they don’t have the energy • Passive coping skills, avoidance o Avoid proactive attempts to solve problems due to fear of failure, doubt own ability to find solution o Epidemiology ▪ Prevalence / Demographics • 2.7% - 16.6% will have at least one depressive episode in lifetime • Typical age of onset = mid 20’s o More younger people than older people • Gender o Women higher than men ~ 2:1 ▪ But more boys than girls among children ▪ But consider sx’s included in dx of MDD • Course o 40% will have just one episode o Of those who have two episodes, 70% will have a third o Of those who have three episodes, 90% will have a fourth o Chronic, lifelong illness o Etiology ▪ Cognitive-Behavioral Model • Beck’s Negative Cognitive Triad - pessimistic view of self, the world, and future o Cognitive distortions • Seligman’s Negative Attributional Styles o Early uncontrollable negative experiences o Lead to reduced belief in ability to problem solve, passivity, feelings of helplessness • Life Events Model o Prolonged exposure to psychosocial stress can precipitate depression o Treatment for Depression ▪ Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy •
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