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Lecture 11

PSYC 465 Lecture 11: PSYC 361 Lecture 11

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Towson University
PSYC 465

PSYC 361 Lecture 11 Neurodevelopmental Disorders • Neurodevelopmental Disorders o Intellectual Disabilities o Learning Disorders o Motor Disorders ▪ Tic Disorders o Communication Disorders o Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder o Autism Spectrum Disorder • Intellectual Disabilities o History of terminology : ▪ Derogatory / Insulting terms • E.g., “retarded”, “moron” ▪ In DSM-IV, called “Mental Retardation” o Diagnostic Criteria : ▪ A) Intellectual functioning is significantly impaired • Individuals who are two standard deviations (2x15) below the average IQ o IQ of ~70 or below ▪ B) Deficits in adaptive functioning in at least two areas : • Conceptual, social, or practical domains ▪ C) Onset during developmental period o Subtypes of Intellectual Disabilities (IQ scores) ▪ Mild : 50/55-70 • 85% of cases ▪ Moderate : 35/40-50/55 • 10% of cases ▪ Severe: 20/25-35/40 • 3-4% of cases ▪ Profound : below 20/25 • 1-2% of cases o Genetic Disorders ▪ Down Syndrome ▪ PKU ▪ Fragile X Syndrome • ADHD o Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ▪ ADD no longer exists o Can have sx’s of inattentiveness or hyperactivity or both o Diagnostic Criteria : ▪ 1) Inattention • 6 or more sx’s o Ex. disorganized; forgetful; easily distracted; sustained attention o However, can focus on video games for long periods of time • Must last at least 6 months ▪ 2) Hyperactivity/Impulsivity • 6 or more sx’s o Hyperactivity: fidgets; squirmy; leaves seat; talks a lot; “driven by a motor” o Impulsivity: interrupts; problems waiting turn; acts without thinking • Must last at least 6 months ▪ Sx’s must impair functioning and be inconsistent with developmental age • Clearly interfere with social, school/work functioning ▪ Some sx’s must be present before age 12 ▪ Two or more settings • E.g. At home, at school o Subtypes : ▪ Combined Type • At least 6 from each category ▪ Predominantly Inattentive • At least 6 from inattentive and less than 6 from hyperactivity/impulsivity ▪ Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive • At least 6 from hyperactivity/impulsivity and less than 6 from inattentive • Epidemiology o Prevalence rates ▪ About 6-7% worldwide, but varies dramatically between countries • Varies from less than 1% to more than 20% • About 12% in the US • Highest in Ukraine and India • Lowest in France • Increased by ~50% within last decade ▪ Males 2-3x more likely than females (but different sx’s) • Boys tend to be more hyperactive-impulsive • Girls tend to be more inattentive o Comorbid ▪ Behavioral dx’s, autism, mood/anxiety, learning dx’s, and substance use dx’s o Majority of people (75%) do not meet full criteria for dx into adulthood ▪ About 60% still have some sx’s o Genetics ▪ Accounts for ~76% of variance o Environment ▪ Low SES ▪ Smoking or drinking during pregnancy ▪ Paternal criminality o Neurological Abnormalities ▪ Reduced cortex ▪ Basal ganglia volume – associated with motor control • May be due to brain development delay ▪ Abnormal activity in striatum – reward anticipation • Less dopamine during reward anticipation but had a stronger release of dopamine when receiving the reward ▪ Brain abnormalit
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