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BIO-0013 (103)
Mc Vey (25)
Lecture

11-27-12.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO-0013
Professor
Mc Vey
Semester
Fall

Description
11­27­12 • Partial diploid o Plasmid = introduced genetic material o Bacterial chromosome has its own set of all genes, plasmid is extra o If repressor protein is dysfunctional in plasmid, but functional in  chromosome, they can act at both sites • How do we know the DNA is the same in every somatic cell of an adult  organism? o Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) o If the DNA in the nucleus is the same in each cell, the DNA in each  somatic cell should be able to create a new organism (clone) o What is cloning:  Molecular cloning: recombinant DNA technology  Therapeutic: duplicating part of an organism  Reproductive: duplicate an entire organism • Plant or animal has the same genes as the original • Requires the proper environment in order to instruct the  development of a new organism (egg) • Mammalian embryos nee to develop in the proper  environment (uterus of surrogate host) o SCNT embryos are made by combining the DNA of somatic cell with an  egg cell from which the nucleus has been removed  Enucleate (remove DNA) from unfertilized egg • Right environment for DNA  Combine somatic nucleus (DNA) with enucleated egg cell  Allow zygote to develop until blastocyst stage (implantation stage)  Implant into mammalian surrogate uterus of the same species • Gene control levels o DNA  Alteration of nucleosomes  Methylation  Acetylation o RNA  Processing (splicing, caps/tails)  Sequestering  Degradation o Proteins  Chemical modifications  Degradation  Folding  Sequestering • Chromatin structure is altered to enable TC of eukaryotic genes o Why is DNA wound up?  Remember: o How does RNA polymerase bind to DNA if it is all wound up?  Must unwind  2 types of proteins involved in modifying chromatin structure • chromatin­remodeling complexes (needs ATP) • chromatin­modifying proteins o + acetyl = acetylation o + methyl = me
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