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BIO-0013 (103)
Lecture

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO-0013
Professor
Michelle Gaudette
Semester
Fall

Description
October 10, 2013 Pre­Lecture: Interphase: • G1: unreplicated chromosomes  • S and G2: replicated chromosomes, each consisting of two sister chromatids • Mitosis: at start of mitosis, replicated chromosomes condense; during mitosis, sister  chromatids separate; two daughter cells are formed by cytokinesis o Mitotic spindle: composed of microtubules (a and B tubulin dimers  ▯plus end and   minus end – plus end generally grows faster)   Microtubules generate from centrosome (composed of two centrioles  positioned at 90degrees from each other) IPPMAT – I Prefer Plain Milk And Tea • Interphase: After chromosome replication, each chromosome is composed of two sister  chromatids.  Centrosomes have replicated • Prophase: Chromosomes condense, and mitotic spindle begins to form. • Prometaphase: Nuclear envelope breaks down.  Spindle fibers contact chromosomes at  kinetochore. • Metaphase: Chromosomes complete migration to middle of cell (on the metaphase plate). • Anaphase: Sister chromatids separate.  Chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the  cell. • Telophase: The nuclear envelope re­forms, and the spindle apparatus disintegrates. • Cytokinesis: Cytoplasm is divided.  Cell division begins as an actin­myosin ring causes  the plasma membrane to begin pinching in.  Cell division is complete when two daughter  cells form. Lecture: Nucleosome + other DNA packaging proteins = chromatin Chromosome = contiguous stretch of chromatin • Chromosomes are visible only during a brief time in the life of a cell (the cell cycle),  when they condense, align themselves, and are separated into two new cells Alma Howard & Stephen Pelc (1953): • Used radioactive tags to track how/when DNA is copied and where it goes • Chromosomes are replicat
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