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8.2, 8.5, 9.1, 9.2 Class Notes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO-0013
Professor
Michelle Gaudette
Semester
Fall

Description
Sept 24, 2013 Metabolism, Energy, Redox, and Glycolysis REVIEW SUNDAY BARNUM 104 7­9 PM Photosynthesis: Oxidized forms of carbon (CO2)  ▯reduced carbon (carbohydrates)  Energy is stored in glucose, which is then oxidized in glycolysis • Broken into two pyruvate molecules • Pyruvate is then degraded to produce ATP  • End form of carbon is CO2 • Carbon is reduced (gains electrons) Aldehyde + Cu+2  ▯Cu+1 (reduction of Cu) Possible to have redox reactions with no ionization  • Methane: CH4 +2O2 > ▯  O=C=O + 2H2O o Carbon is being oxidized because the electrons are further away from the C in  CO2 than they are in CH4 o The fewer H’s attached to a carbon, the more oxidized is that carbon  Saturated hydrocarbon chains – reduced  Unsaturated hydrocarbons are more oxidized Transfer of a hydride ion • H­ • Equivalent to a H+ and 2e­ • Often there are cofactors that pick up electrons from a substrate and pass them on to  another acceptor  o Examples:  NAD+ / NADH + H+ • Nicotinicacid (niacin)  ▯nicotinomide  • NAD+ + QH2  NADH + Q +H+  FAD / FADH2 Respiration:  • Take energy out • In the presence of oxygen • Capture the energy in the form of ATP Fermentation: • In the absence of oxygen • Inefficient pathway o Lot less ATP produced compared to respiration GLYCOLYSIS: • C6  ▯2x C3 • 10% of the total energy in glucose is harvested (better than fermentation, but still not that  much) • takes place entirely in the cytoso
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