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BIO-0013 (103)
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Department
Biology
Course
BIO-0013
Professor
Michelle Gaudette
Semester
Fall

Description
Sept 6, 2013 Amino Acid Chemistry NEED TO KNOW FUNCTIONAL GROUPS NEED TO KNOW THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF AN AMINO ACID BE ABLE TO DRAW GLYCINE AND ALANINE – BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN WHY ONE HAS  A CHIRAL CENTER AND THE OTHER DOES NOT LOOK AT PROLINE AND REMEMBER THAT IT HAS A WEIRD STRUCTURE All proteins are synthesized from 22 amino acids (20 standard) All amino acids have a central carbon atom that bonds to: • H 2­ (amino functional group) • ­COOH (carboxyl functional group) • H­ (hydrogen atom) • A variable side chain (called “R”) – distinguishes one amino acid from another Enzymes bind to active sites to perform different actions (cleaving, binding, etc.) STRUCTURE IS CRITICAL Properties of amino acids: • Ionization: will ionize at neutral pH; amino group or carboxyl group will ionize  depending on pH • Stereoisomers: same formula, but different structures; include structural, geometric, and  optical isomers o Structural: same formula, but different order of arrangement  o Geometric: differs in arrangement of groups with respect to a double bond, ring,  or other rigid structure o Optical: can exist in two different configurations; occurs when the carbon is  bonded to four different groups (becomes a chiral center); mirror images cannot  be superimposed on original molecule  Ex: think about superimposing your hands (either thumbs won’t line up, or
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