Impacts the secondary structure, tertiary structure, and quaternary structure, wherever hydrogen bonds are present. Due to rare conformational change of a normal protein. Only takes a small number of changed proteins to gradually affect all normal proteins present. Treat protein samples with detergent sds (sodium dodecyl sulfate) Proteins will migrate through polyacrylamide due to its negative charge. Moves in the direction of the positive electrical field towards the bottom. Smaller macromolecules will be closer to the bottom. Allows for distinct recognition of which macromolecule is which based on size. Fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane. Fluid refers to the lipid part of the membrane. Mosaic refers to the proteins that are apart of the membrane. 30% of proteins coded are specifically made for the membrane. Carboxyl head on fatty acids binds to the glycerol. Large hydrocarbon chains on the tail, hydrophobic. Van der waals interactions occur between hydrocarbon chains. Weak electrical attraction between 2 non-polar molecules.