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Child Development
Maryanne Wolf

• Lateralization allows us to have one hemisphere more responsible for a particular function o We have so many responsibilities as human beings o Diffusion of functions across the brain o Women have increased lateralization  If a woman has a stroke, she is more likely to retain the ability to speak • Born with: o Sucking reflex o Senses ready to go o Genetic things we are programmed to do for survival and instinct • Plasticity o Allows us to connect new and old structures/ideas o New approaches to different functions • Babies can be born with only one hemisphere o Never had the other hemisphere so development adapts and learns to function • Brain has highly developed forms of organization o Connectivity of structures o 3 patterns • 4 lobes o Parietal lobe  Spacial processing • We are never doing anything with just one place o 5 sections of brain o Interconnected • Sections of the medulla oblongata o Responsible for heart, respiratory, digestion o Five layers (must know for first test)  Telencephalon  Diencephalon  Mesencephalon • Superior colliculus  Metencephalon  Myelencephalon • Fibers spread out • Grooves allow for more cortical connections and protection o Neurons have to be able to fire together to work in coordination o Neurons that wire together, fire together • Cerebellum is thought of as a collection of egg timers o Different functions have specific rhythms o Must keep pace in firing o Controlled by cerebellum o Controls how we coordinate cognitive functions in time  Ex: gait o Involved in meaning and sound aspects  phonological • tegmentum o makes melanin o made by substancia nigra o lack of melanin is Parkinsons • diencephalon o subcortical system o cognitive functions o hypothalamus (5 F’s)  fighting  fleeing  feeding  fucking  very much involved in sexual identity o thalamus  Looks like an egg  Switchboard  Pulls information up from 3 layers and sends them into the cerebral cortex  Lateral geniculate nucleus • Coordinates vision  Medial geniculate nucleus • Auditory system  Lateral and medial are damaged in people with dyslexia • Visual/auditory information is directed to wrong areas • Between diencephalon and telencephalon o Limbic system  Amygdala • Experiences that infants have, even though they don’t have access to memories of them, can affect development forever • Handling emotions • Remembering emotions • Attached/linked to hippocampus • Phenyl ethylamine o In chocolate o Makes you feel pleasure  Hippocampus • H.M. lost 25 million cells in the hippocampal area • Lost all memory that allowed him to store what happened in a day • Could recall childhood memories • Lived every day in the same way o Vascular system  Resembles tree branches • Hemispheres o Right is responsible for left; left for right o Face is given most space  Expression  Speech  Eating  Aphasia: damage to frontal lobe (broca’s area) • Loss of speech • Responsible for retrieval of words o Toes and genital control are in the seam for protection o Executive functions
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