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CD-0001 (9)


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Child Development
Maryanne Wolf

• Overly emotional: o Experience sampling method  Daily emotions are less positive between early adolescence and remained low through late  Decrease in intense positive emotions  Increase in negative emotions  Girls have more positive than boys  Stressful life events associated with equal amounts of negative emotion throughout adolescence  Emotions became less intense over time • Regulating emotions o Impulse control o Inhibition o Persistence o Adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions are more likely to experience depression, anger, and other social and behavioral problems • Biological processes o Emotion regulation  2 major biological events • Influx of pubertal hormones during early adolescence • A spurt in brain growth triggered by hormones, not complete until late adolescence o Perceived gap between intense emotions triggered by hormones and the ability to regulate these emotions • Family interaction patterns o Warm supportive parenting is associated with the ability to regulate ones feelings  Family emotional negativity  increase in negative emotions • Sociocultural expectations o Are girls more emotional?  As babies, they cry the same  Boys are more likely to cry if parents are supportive of emotional expression • Adolescent depression o There is a dramatic rise in depression between the ages of 13 and 15, a peak at 17 and 18  Emotionally • Care about more important things for longer periods of time  Cognitively • Can think about generalizations about themselves • Negative expectations  Contextually • Seeking acceptance outside the family unit o By the time the reach age 16, girls are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression  Different psychological predictors of depression in males as females • girls o dislike changes in bodies o more attune to opinions of others • boys o antagonistic o self-indulgent o deceitful o 14-16% of depressed boys also have conduct disorder • Sex differences and precursors to depression can be seen as early as preschool • Identity development o Me self
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