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Child Development
Maryanne Wolf

• 5 periods of child development o Prenatal o Infancy o Early childhood o Middle childhood o Adolescence • What is childhood o Medieval: children were ‘little adults’  Preformationism: belief that adult like capacities, desires, interests, and emotions are present in early childhood o Protestant reformation: children born with original sin  Mischievous desires  Salvation possible through obedience and submission to authority o Industrial revolution: 3 major changes  Schooling and factory work replaced farm work  Birth and death rates dropped  People considered how many hours they should be working and the best ways to spend their time o Charles Darwin  Saw that children developed in changes over time • Central issues of child development o Sources of development: forces of biology and the environment on a child’s own activities o Plasticity: to what extent is the course of development subject to change o Continuity: is development gradual or does it take place in stages o Individual differences o Between critical and sensitive periods • Grand theories o Freud  Three sides to consciousness • Id: most primitive desires • Ego: rational component • Superego: consciousness  Psychosexual stages • Child is obsessed with fulfilling sexual desires o Oral o Anal o Phallic (3-6) o Latency (7-puberty) o Genitals (adolescence) o Erickson  Over development one is • First year: trust vs. mistrust • Second year: autonomy vs. shame and doubt o Try things on their own and become doubtful if fail • 3-6: initiative vs. guilt o Initiate own activities or feel
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